Abstract Example | For Free (2023)

Abstract Example | For Free (1)


  • 1 Abstract Example – Definition
  • 2 FAQs
  • 3 Step-by-Step Guide
  • 4 Types of Abstract with Examples
  • 5 Examples for Your Thesis
  • 6 In a Nutshell

Abstract Example – Definition

An abstract example is a piece of information that conclusively summarizes the whole article, review, conference corresponding and thesis, among others. It can also be used to provide an intensive summary of a specific subject.

It often occurs at the beginning of the authors work, to enable the reader to deduce the purpose of the thesis, research or article. If the information is conclusive, the abstract should be able to provide the complete idea of what is in the paper without any problems.


What is the difference between a thesis statement and an abstract example?

A thesis statement is a stance that the writer takes about the particular research topic and it is frequently referred to throughout the text. An abstract example, on the other hand, is a summary of an article or written project which only consists of the main problem, purpose and conclusion of the work. The abstract is a great way to get an idea of a research report without reading the whole thing.

Do you need to write your own commentary on an abstract?

It depends on the type of abstract you are writing. You can only include personal commentary in a critical abstract. Generally, it should express the results and findings of your research paper in one concise summary.

How do you know you have enough information in your abstract?

A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself the question: As another researcher, with only the abstract as an available piece of paper from the whole research, would I understand the contents of the research paper or dissertation through this abstract example? If the answer is no, then perhaps you need to rephrase your abstract to ensure that it’s clear and concise.

How to find an abstract example?

Finding an abstract example is quite easy. We have included some examples here below with instructions on how to format them. All of the information you need is right here at your fingertips, simply scroll down and you’ll find examples, as well as a step-by-step guide to writing an abstract.

How long is an abstract?

For a smaller research paper, the abstract should be somewhere between 1/3 of a page to 1 whole page. 150 words is a good starting point. For a bachelor’s thesis, or a master’s thesis, your abstract will be 1-2 whole pages, but it should never exceed 2 pages.

(Video) How To Write An Abstract In 5 Minutes? A Practical Guide With Examples!

What to look for in an abstract example?

There are so many things to look for in an abstract example. For instance, the length of the abstract, the formatting and the key areas that it is focusing on. You should also have a look at how the main points of the research paper are effectively summarised and the tone in which the abstract is written.

What should an abstract include?

An abstract example should include a summary of the whole paper. That includes an introduction, the methods used, the results and an interpretation of the results that were discussed in your academic writing project. Remember to keep it short and concise.

Step-by-Step Guide

Writing an abstract example for your scientific paper is quite easy. You only need to follow some of the steps below, and in no time, you will have a comprehensive abstract.

The steps include:

Step 1: Write the paper first

The best way to come up with a great abstract is to first write the whole research paper. By doing so, you will be able to highlight every key aspect included in the article easily. It also saves you time in case you decide not to use specific information or arguments.

Step 2: Note essential information in the paper

Once you finish writing the whole research paper, go ahead and identify the key sections. Those are the details you need to write. Every sentence should carry valuable information concerning the paper.

Some of the information you need to have in mind include an overview of the problem, the methods used to collect data, the results and the conclusion of the paper. You should summarize all those details in your abstract example.

Step 3: Go through to make sure it touches every main section

You should then go through the abstract and make sure that it touches all the parts of the paper. If a particular section is missing, you need to go ahead and find a way to incorporate it without going above the required words.

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GOOD TO KNOW: Read our article about the Parts of a Research Paper!

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Types of Abstract with Examples

There are various types of abstract examples. You need to know what each type is so that you can understand what you need to write in each one of them.

The types include:

Critical Abstract

The critical abstract example not only focuses on the problem description, methods of data collection, judgement or comment on the findings.

It also involves comparing the paper with other existing works. The abstract example length usually ranges from 400 to 500 words.

Descriptive Abstract

In a descriptive abstract example, you have to denote critical information. You should, however, not include any judgement, commentary or conclusion on the subject.

It is usually 100 words or less. The descriptive abstract example only denotes the purpose, scope and critical areas of the research.

Informative Abstract

It is the most common type of abstract. The abstract usually contains at most 300 words in length.

The informative abstract tends to describe the critical aspects of the research paper, the main arguments, as well as the recommendations of the author.

GOOD TO KNOW: Read our article about Research Paper Topics!

(Video) How to write an GOOD ABSTRACT for student papers

Examples for Your Thesis

Example 1

Stakeholder-oriented protection of employees in Germany

Stakeholders are a significant problem in the United States. In the stated country, the shareholders are company owners, and so managers have to fulfil their interests. Germany, on the other hand, follows the stakeholder-oriented model where each employee deserves a legal representation on the supervisory board.

The literature review indicates the disparity between the two models with favorable outcomes towards the German model. The employee in Germany have a voice, and so they are free to speak their minds and help in decision making. Despite a few negativities, the model is likely to impact the United States positively.

Example 2

Strategic plan and evaluation for healthcare facilities

The primary demand in healthcare at the moment is quality, patient- centered healthcare and safety. Establishment of a strategy that incorporates the three is a significant step to take towards a positive direction.

The literature review, however, denotes that the accomplishment of the plan depends solely on systems and not individuals. For the effectiveness of the strategy, it has to align with the organizational culture, operation unites and culture. The strategy performance will then require an analytical tool for proper evaluation of its success.

Example 3

Communication behavior, Values, and political participation

This paper scrutinizes the mediation of communication behavior on the influence of values towards political participation. The findings are that post-material values like newspapers affect political participation positively while materialist values affect negatively.

Some results explain how communication patterns affect political participation, and that goes beyond the facts regarding political knowledge. The conclusion is that integrating information from news and various sources can lead to a better understanding of the political realm. It can also lead to better political participation in politics than when using factual politics knowledge.

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In a Nutshell

  • An abstract is a short intensive summary of an article which mostly occurs at the beginning of the author’s work.
  • It should enable the reader to deduce the purpose and the results of the article to help him decide if it is worth reading.
  • There are different types of abstracts: critical, descriptive and informative
  • In order to write a good abstract, you should write your whole paper first.
  • By going through the included abstract examples, you find the ideal format, tone and structure of a descriptive abstract.

Find more helpful information here:

Read more about a good bibliography for your thesis:


Find out how to write the perfect conclusion for your thesis:



What is APA citation? We will give you some information:


(Video) How To Write The Abstract For Your Dissertation Or Thesis (+ Examples)


What are examples of abstract? ›

Love, fear, anger, joy, excitement, and other emotions are abstract nouns. Courage, bravery, cowardice, and other such states are abstract nouns. Desire, creativity, uncertainty, and other innate feelings are abstract nouns. These are just a few examples of non-concrete words that are sensed.

What is a 100 word abstract? ›

An abstract is a paragraph that provides an overview of a paper. Abstracts should be between 100 and 200 words long and usually contain a list of keywords at the end to help readers identify the main points of the paper.

How do you write an abstract example? ›

The abstract should begin with a brief but precise statement of the problem or issue, followed by a description of the research method and design, the major findings, and the conclusions reached.

What is an abstract statement example? ›

An abstract example should include a summary of the whole paper. That includes an introduction, the methods used, the results and an interpretation of the results that were discussed in your academic writing project. Remember to keep it short and concise.

What are 10 examples of abstract nouns? ›

Examples of Abstract Nouns
  • Glory.
  • Honour.
  • Courage.
  • Love.
  • Truth.
  • Honesty.
  • Symbolism.
  • Puritanism.

What are the 3 types of abstract? ›

There are three types of abstract:
  • Indicative abstracts are short, simple and objective. They describe the theme of the article or publication.
  • Informative abstracts are longer and more thorough. ...
  • Evaluative abstracts (also known as critical abstracts) are subjective.

Can abstract be 2 paragraphs? ›

An abstract should summarize your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced.

Can abstract be 3 paragraphs? ›

1) An abstract should be typed as a single paragraph in a block format This means no paragraph indentation! 2) A typical abstract should only be about 6 sentences long or 150 words or less.

What are the 5 parts of an abstract? ›

However, all abstracts generally cover the following five sections:
  • Reason for writing: What is the importance of the research? ...
  • Problem: What problem does this work attempt to solve? ...
  • Methodology: An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. ...
  • Results: ...
  • Implications:

What are the 7 steps to writing an abstract? ›

How to write an abstract
  1. Write your paper. Since the abstract is a summary of a research paper, the first step is to write your paper . ...
  2. Review the requirements. ...
  3. Consider your audience and publication. ...
  4. Explain the problem. ...
  5. Explain your methods. ...
  6. Describe your results. ...
  7. Give a conclusion.
14 Apr 2020

How do you write a 100 word abstract? ›

An experimental research abstract, sometimes called a scientific abstract, (100 words or fewer) usually includes, in this order:
  1. The title of the paper.
  2. A brief discussion of context or background.
  3. The study's objectives--what is the question under discussion?
  4. A brief summary of major results and their significance.

What is a good sentence for abstract? ›

We have lost the abstract sense of beauty. Art is always more abstract than we fancy. There was a complicated and incomprehensible schemata of numbers and abstract forms. Daring ambition rather than any merely abstract virtue was the keynote of her character.

How many words is an abstract? ›

Abstracts are usually around 100–300 words, but there's often a strict word limit, so make sure to check the relevant requirements. In a dissertation or thesis, include the abstract on a separate page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents.

What are abstract words? ›

Abstract words refer to intangible qualities, ideas, and concepts. These words indicate things we know only through our intellect, like "truth," "honor," "kindness," and "grace." Concrete words refer to tangible, qualities or characteristics, things we know through our senses.

What is the abstract noun of free? ›

Abstract noun of free is 'Freedom'.

Can you list 10 abstract nouns? ›

Abstract noun- Beauty, goodness, old-age, childhood, honesty, truth, wisdom, bravery, sadness, happiness, etc.

Can an abstract have 300 words? ›

An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of 300 words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found as a result of your ...

Is an abstract a summary? ›

An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long.

Can an abstract be 1000 words? ›

The extended abstract should contain a minimum of 1000 words and a maximum of 2500 words. Extended abstracts can contain figures, tables and/or images which are not included in the word count. The references are not included in the word count as well.

Can you say I in an abstract? ›

It is your abstract of your paper reporting on your work, and therefore, you can use personal pronouns such as “I” and “we”. A third aspect to look at is length. It is a good idea to keep your abstract short. Even if the journal has no specific word limit for the length of the abstract, stick to a maximum of 300 words.

How do you start off an abstract? ›

To write an abstract, finish your paper first, then type a summary that identifies the purpose, problem, methods, results, and conclusion of your work. After you get the details down, all that's left is to format it correctly. Since an abstract is only a summary of the work you've already done, it's easy to accomplish!

What to avoid in writing an abstract? ›

What are the most common mistakes students make writing their abstracts?
  • Not having a clear rationale. ...
  • Using improper tense. ...
  • Using too much hyperbolic language or jargon. ...
  • Failing to state a conclusion. ...
  • Not having enough keywords.
10 Oct 2018

Can you start an abstract with a question? ›

3) The first part of the abstract is usually used to set the stage by presenting some background or key information to bring the readers up to speed. Starting with a question can throw some experienced readers off.

How do you write an introduction? ›

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order: An opening hook to catch the reader's attention. Relevant background information that the reader needs to know. A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

Can an abstract be less than 100 words? ›

There are two main types of abstract, the descriptive and the informative abstract. The type of abstract you write depends on the discipline area and whether you are reporting on experimental research. This type of abstract is usually very short (50-100 words). Each of these parts might consist of one or two sentences.

What is a 50 word abstract? ›

Descriptive abstracts are generally used for humanities and social science papers or psychology. essays. This type of abstract is usually very short (50-100 words). Most descriptive abstracts have. certain key parts in common.

What are the 4 qualities of a good abstract? ›

An abstract should be brief, concise, objective and balanced. It is a "just the facts" presentation of the research with major emphasis on conveying methods and main results so that readers are able to understand the basis of the "take home" messages that are expressed in "conclusions".

What are the 4 C's of abstract writing? ›

Complete — it covers the major parts of the project. Concise — it contains no excess wordiness or unnecessary information. Clear — it is readable, well organized, and not too jargon-laden. Cohesive — it flows smoothly between the parts.

How should I structure my abstract? ›

The usual sections defined in a structured abstract are the Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions; other headings with similar meanings may be used (eg, Introduction in place of Background or Findings in place of Results).

What are the rules for an abstract? ›

Guidelines for Writing Abstracts
  • An abstract briefly explains the salient aspects of the content.
  • Abstracts should be accurate and succinct, self-contained, and readable.
  • The abstract should paraphrase and summarise rather than quote from the paper.
  • Abstracts should relate only to the paper to be presented/assessed.

What are 20 examples of abstract nouns? ›

Abstract nouns refer to intangible things, like feelings, ideas, concepts, and qualities. Love, curiosity, grief, chaos, and friendship are all abstract nouns.
Abstract Nouns That Show Human Qualities.
16 more rows

What are key words on abstract writing? ›

Keywords are important terms that can be found in your abstract and chapters, but they also stand alone as search terms. Abstracts and keywords together help researchers find content.

How do you write an abstract of 6 sentences? ›

The six sentences are:
  1. Introduction. ...
  2. State the problem you tackle. ...
  3. Summarize (in one sentence) why nobody else has adequately answered the research question yet. ...
  4. Explain, in one sentence, how you tackled the research question. ...
  5. In one sentence, how did you go about doing the research that follows from your big idea.
26 Jan 2010

Why is abstract short? ›

An abstract is a short statement about your paper designed to give the reader a complete, yet concise, understanding of your paper's research and findings. It is a mini-version of your paper.

What is abstract PDF? ›

It is a well-developed single paragraph of approximately 250 words in length, which is indented. and single spaced. The function of the abstract is to outline briefly all parts of the paper. Types of Abstracts.

What are the 5 elements of an abstract? ›

However, all abstracts generally cover the following five sections:
  • Reason for writing: What is the importance of the research? ...
  • Problem: What problem does this work attempt to solve? ...
  • Methodology: An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. ...
  • Results: ...
  • Implications:

What are the five types of abstract? ›

There are five types of abstract: indicative abstracts, informative abstracts, critical abstracts, structured abstracts and modular abstracts. Diagrammatic abstracts are not discussed. The types of abstract most commonly used are indicative and informative abstracts.

What are two abstraction examples? ›

You can drive a car without knowing how the internal combustion engine works, you can walk to the shops without knowing how your brain stem is controlling your walking or breathing rate, and you can pay for your groceries using our universal abstraction of 'value': money.

Which is the best example of an abstraction? ›

Abstraction in Real Life

Your car is a great example of abstraction. You can start a car by turning the key or pressing the start button. You don't need to know how the engine is getting started, what all components your car has. The car internal implementation and complex logic is completely hidden from the user.

How long is an abstract? ›

1) An abstract should be typed as a single paragraph in a block format This means no paragraph indentation! 2) A typical abstract should only be about 6 sentences long or 150 words or less.

What is a good abstract? ›

A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point. To keep your abstract or summary short and clear: Avoid passive sentences: Passive constructions are often unnecessarily long.

What is real life example of abstraction? ›

Abstraction in the real world

Making coffee with a coffee machine is a good example of abstraction. You need to know how to use your coffee machine to make coffee. You need to provide water and coffee beans, switch it on and select the kind of coffee you want to get.

What is simple abstraction? ›

Simple Abstraction™ is a collection of carpet tiles creating canvases across the floor. The canvas is defined by the designer. Each becomes its own artistic expression when textures are combined, colors are chosen, and marks are made.

What is abstraction in simple words? ›

Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and trahere , meaning to draw) is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.

What is the most common type of abstract? ›

The two most common abstract types—descriptive and informative—are described and examples of each are provided. Informative abstract: Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement.

Why do we use abstraction with examples? ›

The main purpose of abstraction is hiding the unnecessary details from the users. Abstraction is selecting data from a larger pool to show only relevant details of the object to the user. It helps in reducing programming complexity and efforts. It is one of the most important concepts of OOPs.


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