American Regional  Literature (2023)

American Regional Literature—the American South: English 470W.01
Fall 2001


Robert Donahoo

408 Evans Complex

Office Phone: 936-294-1421

Office E-mail: Web Page:

Home Phone: 281-298-1442 (no calls after 9 p.m.)

Home E-mail:

Office Hours: 1:00 p.m. – 3:00 p.m., Tuesday and Thursday

Class Meets: 11:00 a.m., Tuesday and Thursday, in Evans 417

Texts: The Literature of the AmericanSouth, W. Andrews, ed.
The Unvanquished, W. Faulkner
Light in August, W. Faulkner
As I Lay Dying, W. Faulkner

Introductory Thoughts:
America has long been a nation of regions: geographical areas whose inhabitants shareenough common experiences, values, and history to make them distinct from other areas. Ofour nation’s major regions, one of the most distinct has been the American South. Inpart, that distinction is owed to history. In seceding from the Union, claiming its ownnational separateness, and initiating the Civil War, the South underscored its own view ofitself as "different." Yet that sense of difference existed long before gunswere fired at Fort Sumter, and it has continued long after the stillness of Appomattox.That leads to the question, what is so different about the South? This question—andthe answers that have been made and can be made to it—is central to this course. Ourgoal will be to arrive at some sense of how Southern difference has been portrayed in,commented upon, used by, and even generated the literature of the American South.

That goal necessitates that the course assume a view of literature different from theone students may be accustomed to encountering in English classes. Generally,undergraduate literary studies seek to examine specific texts in order to understand whyor how those texts are "literature." In doing so, they typically focus on"universal" truths found in the texts or on the unity between form and meaning.While these things will not be totally ignored here, students will be required also torecognize literary texts as cultural artifacts: objects that explain and define a specificsociety and are explained and defined by their society. In short, we’ll not only belooking for messages and artistry in the texts we consider, we will ask such questions as,"what does this text tell me about the South?"; "why was this textvalued/rejected by the South?"; and "what effect(s) did and does this text haveon the South?"

Students also need to be aware that the idea of a "South" is itself afiction. There are, in fact, many "Souths." This course will attempt to addressthat fact by pointedly considering three different, though related Souths: themythical/aristrocratic South; the racial South; and the working class or"white-trash" South. Students should, by the end of the term, be able not onlyto define the essence of each of these versions of the South but also to grasp the ways inwhich they are connected—even dependent upon each other for definition. As aconsequence, the course will not pursue the strict, chronological organization manystudents may expect. Neither will it attempt to fairly examine all the literature of theregion. Rather, we will center the course on three texts by the South’s mostinfluential and highly praised writer, William Faulkner. And we will use supplementingtexts to respond to and elaborate Faulkner’s insights. This will be challengingbecause Faulkner is a challenging, difficult writer, but his work is also richlyrewarding.

Finally, students should know that Southern literature and culture are one of my majorintellectual passions. In translation, that means I like them a lot. That doesn’tmean I like or agree with everything we read, but it does mean that I love to think aboutit and talk about it. Take advantage of my office hours and e-mail to give me comments andquestions. Give yourself the freedom to enjoy the course—even Faulkner. With anyluck, some of you will leave the course as passionate about the South and its literatureas I am.

Of course, you’re probably wondering, "How am I going to earn my grade forthis class?" The answer is that each student’s grade for the course will bedetermined by 3 major factors.

First, we have will have three essay exams. Two of these will occur during thesemester, and the third will occur during the time scheduled by the University for thiscourse’s final exam. The exams are of equal value. Each exam will focus on thematerial covered most recently in the course, but students may need to refer to conceptsfrom previously tested material in order to do their best work. Also, each day a studentattends an entire class session, he/she will earn one extra credit point toward the nextexam. All exams must be written in a "blue book" and use some form of ink.My eyes are aging too rapidly due to the stress of trying to read faint pencil scratches.Collectively, a student’s three exams will determine one-third of his/hercourse grade.

Second, each student will prepare an annotated bibliography over Faulkner’s novel,Light in August. This project will consist of bibliographic entries and annotationsfor six articles/essays. Five of these articles/essays will be chosen by me and found onreserve in the library. It will be up to each student to find a sixth article/essay tocomplete the assignment. After the second week of class, this assignment can be found onweb page attached to the syllabus for this course. This project will produce two grades.The first of these is a grade over the mechanics of bibliographic form and clarity of theannotations ("clarity" includes grammatical correctness). This grade willdetermine one-sixth of each student’s course grade. The second is a grade overa student’s mastery of the content of the articles. This will be determined in anindividual conference with me. I will ask each student a few open-ended questions and givehim/her the opportunity to show both knowledge and opinions of the articles and Lightin August. This conference will produce a grade that will determine one-sixthof each student’s course grade.

Third, each student will write a historical/cultural analysis of a piece of Southernwriting. The specific texts for this assignment are found on the assignment sheet attachedto this syllabus. The grade on this paper will determine one-third of eachstudent’s course grade.

The only other factor that could affect a student’s grade is attendance.Generally, I try to use attendance as a positive inducement—something reflected in mygiving extra credit points for each day a student is in class. However, excessive absenceswill not be tolerated. They discourage other students and me. Anyone missing more than 10days of class (that’s almost half the course) will see a lowering of their coursegrade by a minimum of one letter.

Schedule of Assigned Readings:

Thursday, 8/23 Introduction to the course: Images of the American South
Chappell, "Grandmother Washes Her Feet"

(Video) Regionalism Naturalism

Tuesday, 8/28 Cash, The Mind of the South (Norton)

Thursday, 8/30 Faulkner, The Unvanquished

Tuesday, 9/4 Faulkner, The Unvanquished

Thursday, 9/6 Faulkner, The Unvanquished

Tuesday, 9/11 Poe, "To Helen," "The Fall of the House of Usher"

Thursday, 9/13 Cable, "Belles Demoiselles Plantation"
Glasgow, "Jordan’s End"

Tuesday, 9/18 The Southern Agrarians, "Introduction: A Statement ofPrinciples"
Ransom, "Bells for John Whiteside's Daughter," "Old Mansion"
Tate, "Ode to the Confederate Dead"

Thursday, 9/20 Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire

Tuesday, 9/25 Taylor, "Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time"
Dave Smith, "Smithfield Ham"
Hudgins, "The Persistence of Nature in our Lives," "Claims," "TheLast Time I Saw General Lee"

Thursday, 9/27 Exam One

Tuesday, 10/2 Faulkner, Light in August

Thursday, 10/4 Faulkner, Light in August

Tuesday, 10/9 Faulkner, Light in August

Thursday, 10/11 Faulkner, Light in August
Note: last day to drop a fall course without receiving an "F";last day to resign without receiving "WP" or "WF"

Tuesday, 10/16 Faulkner, Light in August

Thursday, 10/18 Annotated Bibliography Due

Tuesday, 10/23 Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl(chpts. I, II, V, X, XII)
Chesnut, Mary Chesnut’s Civil War (pages 226-231)

Thursday, 10/25 Chopin, "Desiree’s Baby"
Page, "Marse Chan"
Chesnutt, "The Goophered Grapevine"

Tuesday, 10/30 Hurston, "Sweat"
Wright, "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow," "Big Boy Leaves Home" ( )

Thursday, 11/1 No class (SCMLA)

Tuesday, 11/6 Gaines, "The Sky is Gray"
Kenan, "The Foundations of the Earth"

(Video) Regionalism

Thursday, 11/8 Exam Two

Tuesday, 11/13 Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying

Thursday, 11/15 Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying

Tuesday, 11/20 Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying

Thursday, 11/22 Thanksgiving Holiday

Tuesday, 11/27 Analysis Paper Due
Hooper, "The Captain Attends a Camp Meeting"
Porter, "He"

Thursday, 11/29 O’Connor, "The Life You Save May Be YourOwn" (on reserve), "Revelation"
Final Exam for December Graduates

Tuesday, 12/4 Chappell, "Cleansing the Well," "SecondWind"
Price, "The Company of the Dead"

Thursday, 12/6 Mason, "Shiloh"
Allison, "River of Names"

Monday, 12/10 Final Exam for the course, 8:00 a.m.

Paper Assignment: A Historical-Cultural Analysis

In order to show skills in dealing with Southernliterature, students are asked to write a historical-cultural analysis of one of thefollowing texts from the noted perspectives:

"The Ugliest Pilgrim" by Doris Betts/the state of religion in the South
Three poems in our text by James Dickey/southern materialism and/or economics
"Grant" by Ellen Douglas/the Southern Myth (On reserve in the library)
"Parker’s Back" by Flannery O’Connor/art and the artist in the South (on reserve in the library)
"Everyday Use" by Alice Walker/the state of African American families
"Blackberry Winter" by Robert Penn Warren/economics or the status of the child
"A Curtain of Green," by Eudora Welty/women and gender issues

A historical-cultural analysis seeks to establish the relationship between a text andeither its period of production (the general era in which the text was first created) orsome period of its reception. It makes use of a close reading of the text, research intothe author and the period of the text’s production, and research into scholarlycommentary on the text and the author. These things should be visible in this paper, butthe thesis itself should be the product of each student’s thought and imagination.And the thesis should clearly state the connection the student sees between some aspect ofthe literary text and its culture or historical moment. It should not be simply astatement of the text’s theme or universal idea. To help students get a handle on thekind of thought to be in this paper, we will consistently take this approach to texts inclass. In addition, students may find the attached sheet, "Historical-CulturalApproaches to Literature" helpful. However, students are strongly encouraged to asklots of questions as they began research and reading for this assignment. For most, thiswill be a new kind of analysis, and in that situation there are no stupid or unimportantquestions.

The more mechanical aspects of the assignment are:

--the paper should be approximately 5-10 pages in length.
--the paper must follow MLA style for documentation and format
--the paper is due Tuesday, November 27 at 11:00 a.m. Because of constraints on my time for grading, no late papers will be accepted.

The criteria I will use in grading the paper are:
--mechanical and stylistic correctness. Be sure to read your own writing, and check,don’t guess, about MLA rules.
--evidence of careful reading of the literary text. Be sure you don’t settle for thesurface of the story, play, or poems you select.
--evidence of academic research. Use the library—books and journals—notjust the internet.
--evidence of a historical-cultural slant or focus.

--a definite, argumentative thesis.

Finally, take this advice: start early and have fun.


In making an historical-cultural analysis of a work of literature,there are two major ways to think of the literary work: as a mirror or as an artifact.The one of these the analyst selects will determine both what the analysis looksfor and how the analysis searches.

The Mirror Approach

This approach assumes that the literary text is a reflection of ahistorical reality named in its words. In short, it focuses its attention on thehistorical setting named in the text. In taking this approach, the analyst shouldconsider three important issues:

1. the nature of the reality reflected in the text. In other words, what claims does the text make about its historical setting? Any historical data is valid (the kinds of clothes worn; the kind of language spoken; the general economic level of the period), but the analyst must carefully judge which are significant. In general, the significant data will be those that enable the analyst to understand something about the text's claims concerning the historical period that are unusual or new.

(Video) American Regionalism Definition

2. the accuracy of the reflection. At one level, this issue simply asks, "Is it true?". In other words, if a text claims that people in pre-colonial America traveled to other planets, should this be accepted as accurate "history"? At a more important level, however, the analyst seeks to understand the degree of accuracy and the reasons for variation from accepted history.

3. the assessment/judgment of the historical period reflected in the text. This is the climatic and central point, but it cannot be separated from the other two. Most often, it will serve as the thesis of this type of historical analysis.

The Artifact Approach

This is by far the more sophisticated and interesting of the two approaches because itassumes that the literary text exists in history and both is determined by and determineshistory. In other words, as an artifact, the literary text creates our understanding ofthe time period in which it was written/produced. The thesis of this kind of analysis willalways be some assertion about the nature of the time period which enabled/caused the textto be written. To find that information, it is important to bear in mind sixthings.

1. The date of the text's production. Note that this is not something you seek to deduce from the text but rather to determine from information exterior to the text. Be especially carefully to determine if the text's date of production differs from its date of setting.

2. If the date of the text's production coincides with the date of its setting, the analyst can read the text for specific historical data such as means of transportation, type of housing, popular entertainments, issues of public interest and debate. Then the analyst can use this data to deduce a way of describing the conditions characterizing this time period (i.e., militaristic, rustic and simple, hard but fulfilling, etc.).

3. In following up the insights gained in issue two, the analyst needs to question whether or not the tone, the major idea, and/or the emotional impact of the text can be seen to challenge, encourage, or accept the general description of the period deduced from the text's specific historical details. On the basis of the relationship between the text's specific historical details and its tone, major idea, and/or emotional impact, the analyst must draw conclusions concerning the relationship between this writer and his/her historical era.

4. If the date of production differs from the setting's time period (for example, "Young Goodman Brown" is written/produced in 1835 but its setting is 1690), the analyst has to recognize that specific historical details are useless for an "artifact" analysis. They will not necessarily reflect the conditions during the period of production. Therefore, the analyst must rely totally on tone, major idea, and/or emotional impact to find the historical meaning of the text. These things (tone, major idea, and/or emotional impact) are the items that reflect the beliefs of at least one individual (the author) living in a specific time period and may reflect general beliefs of that period..

5. Based on an understanding of the text's tone, major idea, and/or emotional impact, the analyst must hypothesize ideas about the period of production, being careful to acknowledge the limitations of the hypothesize. This will usually be the thesis of the paper using this kind of historical analysis.

6. In discovering these ideas, the analyst should evaluate their accuracy against credible histories of the period of production, not to find out whether the text is right or wrong but rather to see how the text expands or solidifies our understanding of that period.

In either the mirror or the artifact analysis, the analyst needs to avoid:

--reading assumed history onto the text.

--forcing the text to agree with history.

--demanding historical accuracy in a literary text.

--using historical details to date the text or prove its period of production when the date of production can be found exterior to the text.

It should also be remembered that we are free to evaluate historical responses tothe text. In order words, we can note what has been said about a text in order tounderstand the period which produced that commentary.

Annotated Bibliography Assignment

An annotated bibliography is simply a list of critical texts containing:
--a complete bibliographic entry for each text (students must use MLa style);
--a brief summary of the major arguments and ideas in the critical text;
--an informed response to the arguments and ideas in the critical text.
These components are arranged alphabetically, on double-spaced, typed pages.

For this assignment, students are required to use five criticalarticles/essays on reserve in the library for this course. The articles/essays are:

--"A Very American Power Struggle: The Color of Rape in Light in August" by Laura L. Bush
--"Getting Around the Body: The Matter of Race and Gender in Light in August" by Mary Joanne Dondlinger
--"The Body Against Itself in Faulkner’s Phenomenology of Race" by Laura Doyle
--"Hightower’s Apotheosis in Light in August" by Harvey L. Gable, Jr.
--"Mentral Blood and ‘Nigger’ Blood: Joe Christmas and the Ideology of Sex and Race" by Joseph R. Urgo

In addition, students are required to locate one additional article/essay on Lightin August. This article should meet the following requirements:

(Video) Introducing American Regionalism

--be at least six pages in length;
--come from a scholarly journal or a bound essay collection. It should not be simply a chapter in a single author book or an internet article that is not a reprinting of a journal article. Any student not familiar with these should meet with the instructor for clarification. Student should not rely on such shortcuts as Twentieth Century Criticism as a source for articles. Anyone having trouble locating material, should seek the instructor’

s help.
--have Light in August as its main, if not only, focus.
--be submitted for evaluation on Thursday, October 18, by 12:20 p.m.

In preparing each bibliographic entry and annotation, students should follow thesteps below.

Step 1: Prepare a correct bibliographic entry.

The key is knowing what kind of text you are writing an entry for: is it anoriginal article in a journal, an original essay in a collection of essays, a journalarticle reprinted in a collection of essays? The cover sheet for each article shouldprovide you with adequate information to determine exactly what your essay is. Anyone whois unsure should check with the instructor. The example entry below is for a journalarticle found reprinted in a collection of essays.

Spangler, George M. "Pudd'nhead Wilson: A Parable of Property." American Literature 42 (1970): 1, 28-37. Rpt. in "Pudd'nhead Wilson" and "Those Extraordinary Twins". Ed. Sidney E. Berger. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980. 295-303.

Step 2: Read the article and mark/note its main points.

*most interpretations judge the book by either its racial themes or by its view of"environmental determinism"

**"It is a book pervaded from start to finish with the very obsession withproperty which is its theme, yet fully in control of the revelation it offers about themoral and spiritual consequences of this obsession."--this is the central thesis.

*uses as support the beginning and ending of the plot in money issues: the theft thatawakens Roxy to her danger & Tom being sold to creditors.

*analyzes Tom claiming, "Tom makes sense only as a nearly allegorical figure ofthe obsession with property to the exclusion of all other human concerns."

*analyzes Wilson as a "foil" to Tom--the man unconcerned with possession.

*analyzes Roxy and observes that when she acts of desire for money she causes harm butwhen she acts out of love, she becomes a sympathetic figure.

*analyzes Judge Driscoll and notes the same pattern of satire/praise seen in the caseof Roxy--though it is less love than his adherence to his code that makes himsympathetic..

*notes that the Twins show how money leads to slavery in their presentation of theirpast.

**concludes the book is related to Twain's biographical financial problems and isdefinitely consistent, coherent and unified.

Step 3: Develop these main ideas into a coherent summary.

Spangler argues that despite criticism labeling Pudd'nhead Wilson as aflawed work focusing on the issues of either race or "environmental determinism"(296), the novel is in fact a highly unified and consistent work concerning"obsession with property" and "the moral and spiritual consequences of thisobsession" (297). Spangler supports this assertion by noting how property issues (thetheft of money and Tom being sold by creditors) frame the novel and by an analysis of thenovel's major characters. He comments that "Tom makes sense only as a nearlyallegorical figure of the obsession with property to the exclusion of all other humanconcerns" (298), and he shows that Wilson serves as Tom's "foil" (298) ornegative image. In addition, he shows that both Roxy and Judge Driscoll reflect bothobsession and rejection of property, though each becomes sympathetic only when she/he optsto act by some motive other than financial gain: love in the case of Roxy and hisaristocratic code in the case of the Judge. He even, quite briefly, notes that the Twins'story of their youth demonstrates "slavery to property, to economic motives . . .reduces one to property, to slavery" (303)--exactly the consequence Tom suffers.

Step 4: Evaluate the article's ideas in light of your own interpretation ofthe literary text. It helps to have finished reading the novel before trying to do this.

On first reading, Spangler's argument struck me as totally convincing. Everythinghe says is well-supported and reasonable, leading to the conclusion that he is right todirect readers away from attempts to understand the novel only in terms of race orenvironmental determinism. However, subsequent readings and thought lead me to notice twothings. First, there is great deal of the novel with Spangler ignores. In focusing ofcharacter and plot, he tends to ignore the novel's language and humor, and, as MarvinFisher and Michael Elliott point out in their article, "Pudd'nhead Wilson:Half a Dog Is Worse than None," language and humor in the novel create an impressionat least as strong as its plot and characters. Second, race and the role of environment indetermining personality are not issues that can just be tossed aside for a focus onproperty. Both play key roles in the novel. And while they may not create or sustain thenovel's unity, to ignore them would be about as useful as ignoring an elephant in a livingroom when one attempts to describe that room's decor. Even if Spangler is correct that afocus on property is what guided the writing of the novel, its use of race andenvironmental determinism inevitably draw readers' interest. While Spangler's argumentsshould not be ignored, I can't help wishing he had found ways to accommodate these two keyissues in his analysis.

Step 5: Repeat this process using other articles as often as the assignmentrequires, remembering to arrange all entries in alphabetical order based on thebibliographic material.

To help you, here is a second example of a biographic entry and annotation.This time, the source is an article in a scholarly journal.

(Video) Get Real: An Introduction to Realism in American Literature

Dunleavy, Linda. "Sanctuary, Sexual Difference, and the Problem of Rape." Studies in American Fiction 24 (1996): 171-191.

Dunleavy analyzes Faulkner’s novel Sanctuary from the perspective of genderto discover what the novel says about rape. Her discovery is that, while criticism hastended to view women in the novel as "inherently rapable" (171), the novelactually shows that rape is an act of violence resulting not from biological weakness inwomen but from social "configurations of power" (172). By this phrase, Dunleavymeans that rape occurs as women are made to appear socially powerless. Thus Temple Drakedoes not cause or invite rape by being sexy but by being in a position of weakness.Moreover, Popeye does not rape Temple because he is attracted to her but because he wantsto demonstrate or claim a power over her. Thus the famous physical rape in the novel isactually mirrored by other relationships of domination in the novel--particularly that ofHorace and his wife and that of Temple and her father.

The attractiveness of this argument is that it de-sensationalizes the novel. It helpsreaders to see that the rape is not there to shock or attract readers but to emphasize asocial aspect of Southern life during the 1920s. It makes "rape" a metaphor forthe avid use of power Faulkner constantly displays in the novel. The problem with it isthat it may intellectualize for some readers, particularly males, an act that isreprehensible. In other words, this article, though powerful, does not totally convince methat Faulkner has made a good choice in using rape as a metaphor for power relationshipsin the American South.


What is the importance of having regional literature? ›

Regional literature plays a significant role in building student character, especially in today's digital era, because the rapid development of technology can affect culture and the existence of regional literature that has developed in previous societies.

What are three important reasons students must take American literature? ›

Consider these five:
  • Literature improves communication skills. The easiest way to improve vocabulary, writing, and speaking skills is to study literature. ...
  • Literature teaches you about yourself. ...
  • Literature teaches about the past. ...
  • Literature cultivates wisdom and a worldview. ...
  • Literature entertains.

What are the 5 major themes of American literature? ›

It may prove valuable to you by providing some ideas which you might wish to incorporate in any survey lecture which you give to your American literature class. Five major themes are discussed: (1) Innocence; (2) Violence; (3) The Frontier; (4) Absence of Happy Love or Fulfilling Marriage; and (5) Anti-machine.

What makes a certain regional literature different to other regions? ›

Local color or regional literature is fiction and poetry that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region.

Why is it important to learn about the literature of the Philippines during the American period? ›

Philippine literature enables us to connect with the mind of the authors. We are able to see their thoughts and ideas and become one with them. They could even control the minds of the audience by their way of writing or the flow of their literary works.

What are the benefits of regional? ›

Regional integration allows countries to:
  • Improve market efficiency;
  • Share the costs of public goods or large infrastructure projects;
  • Decide policy cooperatively and have an anchor to reform;
  • Have a building block for global integration;
  • Reap other non-economic benefits, such as peace and security.

What is the purpose of studying American Literature? ›

By examining literary texts, their stories and their messages, we can increase in our understanding of how to live life. We learn how to discern what is healthy and destructive in the world, and we are challenged with injustice and its consequences.

What is unique about American Literature? ›

American literature can be considered a mirror of America's history, well being and characteristic. It is considered a part of the American culture for it details not only the history of the American people but also reflects the peoples' creative thoughts and imaginations.

What is the importance of studying literature in you as a student? ›

Literature allows a person to step back in time and learn about life on Earth from the ones who walked before us. We can gather a better understanding of culture and have a greater appreciation of them. We learn through the ways history is recorded, in the forms of manuscripts and through speech itself.

What is American literature in your own words? ›

American literature is literature written or produced in the United States of America and in the colonies that preceded it.

What are 3 main characteristics of American literature? ›

The three characteristics of American Literature include – plot of decline, indifferent of nature, 3rd person omniscient reaction to romanticism and surrealism. Firstly, American Literature reflects beliefs and traditions that come from the nation's frontier days.

How important are the contributions of local writers in the development of regional literary traditions? ›

Authors writing about their own communities help bring a specific neighborhood, city, or area to a larger stage in an authentic way. These authors have lived experiences in their communities and deeply understand the culture, challenges, joys, and stories that make them unique.

Why do you think we need to learn and understand the literature of other countries? ›

Reading literature from different countries helps us to interpret the world around us and how humans behave across cultures. We sometimes use this contact with other traditions and cultures to inform or compare our understanding of the world and how we might, or might not, like to be in it.

How regionalism existed in American literature? ›

As a literary category, regionalism originates in the post-Civil war era, but many critics locate its origins in the antebellum period, when women writers like Harriet Beecher Stowe offered sketches of rural New England, while Southwestern humorists promoted the storytelling style and wilderness settings of the ...

What are the most important values that we come to learn in American literature? ›

This phrase encompasses three major values shown throughout early American literature. The strong belief in religion, freedom, and a strong will for a better life. Each piece had one or more of these themes within them. A strong value within almost all the writing was religion, both Native American and Puritan.

What do you know about the Philippines during American period in our country's history? ›

The period of American colonialization of the Philippines was 48 years. It began with the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain in 1898 and lasted until the U.S. recognition of Philippine independence in 1946.

What is importance of American and Filipino relationship? ›

U.S.-Philippine relations are based on strong historical and cultural linkages and a shared commitment to democracy and human rights. The 1951 U.S.-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty provides a strong foundation for our robust post-World War II security partnership.

What is the purpose of regional concept? ›

It seeks to achieve legitimacy for definitions of boundaries and to obtain approval for this definition in cultural and political, and popular and official understandings. Thus, regionalism is concerned with giving meaning to bounded material and symbolic worlds in an effort to create inter-subjective meanings.

What is the purpose of the regional system? ›

To ensure the stability and well-being of Member States through mutual cooperation, in order to maximise regional security in preserving the social and economic development of our people.

What is the importance of the idea of regionalism essay? ›

Regionalism encourages local governments to pool resources, talent and efforts. Collaborating in this way creates more effective planning that all governments, both big and small, can participate in. It also creates a larger budget to deliver stronger results.

What is the greatest work of American literature? ›

The Great Gatsby by F.

Scott Fitzgerald's masterpiece about the delusion of decadence in the age of excess been hailed as “the greatest of Great American Novels” by more than one heavyweight tastemaker.

How can you describe the development of American literature? ›

By the first decades of the 19th century, a truly American literature began to emerge. Though still derived from British literary tradition, the short stories and novels published from 1800 through the 1820s began to depict American society and explore the American landscape in an unprecedented manner.

How does American literature differs from English literature? ›

English literature mainly reflects the English culture, English mannerisms while American literature mirrors American culture, its history, and revolutionary concepts such as relationships with the church, the state, supernatural elements that emerged in the country. E.g. Massachusetts battle.

What do you read in American literature? ›

Full List:
  • The Great Gatsby – F. ...
  • The Scarlet Letter – Nathaniel Hawthorne.
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn- Mark Twain.
  • Of Mice and Men – John Steinbeck.
  • To Kill a Mockingbird– Harper Lee.
  • The Catcher in the Rye – J.D. Salinger.
  • The Grapes of Wrath – John Steinbeck.
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God – Zora Neale Hurston.
29 Oct 2017

What is the purpose of studying literature today and learning how do you interpret them correctly? ›

Literature enhances a person's writing skills

In order to improve, most successful authors praise reading. In addition to fueling imagination and expanding vocabulary, literature provides insight into different literary styles, ideas organization, character development, and more.

What is the greatest impact of literature to you as a student? ›

Literature rapidly increases our learning. We learn through experiences, either our own or those of other people. Literature amplifies our exposure to a range of situations and events that would otherwise take decades for us to experience ourselves.

What is the purpose of literature? ›

The literary purpose is used to entertain and to give aesthetic pleasure. The focus of the literary purpose is on the words themselves and on a conscious and deliberate arrangement of the words to produce a pleasing or enriching effect. A writer often expresses a worldview when using the literary purpose.

What is an example of American literature? ›

The Scarlet Letter. The poetry of Emily Dickinson. Uncle Tom's Cabin. The Great Gatsby.

What do you do in American literature? ›

Students will study works of prose, poetry, drama, and fiction in relation to their historical and cultural contexts. Texts will be selected from among a diverse group of authors for what they reflect and reveal about the evolving American experience and character.

Who is father of American literature? ›

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was praised as the "greatest humorist the United States has produced", and William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature".

Why is the American period in literature called the Golden Age? ›

The eighteenth century produced many talented novelists who will remain immortal through the ages and their works read, analysed and studied for years to come. This is why the 19th century is considered as the golden age of literature in the West.

What are the major themes of English and American literature? ›

Terms in this set (10)
  • The American Dream. ...
  • Loss of Innocence. ...
  • Coming of Age. ...
  • Relationship with Nature. ...
  • Relationship with Society. ...
  • Relationship with Science. ...
  • Alienation and Isolation. ...
  • Survival of the Fittest.

Who is the most important figure in American literature? ›

Mark Twain (1835-1910)

Known for his witty and satirical prose, and the colloquial dialogue of his characters, Twain has been dubbed the Father of American Literature.

What is the common theme from American literature? ›

Within this period of American literature, three themes continued to emerge: the concept of true beauty, protection of nature, and perception versus reality.

What are the 5 basic literary elements in literature? ›

When you analyze a literary text, you will deal with basic elements of literature, like plot, theme, character, point of view, and setting.

How can you help in promoting literature from your region? ›

  • Start at Home: Go through your bookshelves and pull off some titles you would be willing to give away to a good cause. ...
  • Hold a Book Drive. ...
  • Start a Little Free Library for your neighborhood. ...
  • Give Books as Gifts. ...
  • Volunteer as a Tutor.
5 Sept 2019

How will you show that you value our local authors and their literary works? ›

Take a photo of a local author's book while reading it at home or when you see it at a bookstore and then share it on your social media and tag the author. For an author, seeing their book in someone's home or at a bookstore is always a thrill. Follow authors on social media and engage with them.

Why is studying literature from around the world important what values does it give to you as a 21st century learner? ›

Literature teaches us humanity – to be sensitive and empathetic towards others. It also provides us an outlet for our thoughts and emotions and imagination. All these can help address the problems that our world is facing now, such as increasing intolerance and stress in life.

What is the importance of learning and reading different literature from all over the world in the 21st century? ›

Literature reflects humanity and allows us to better understand one another. We can find out how someone is thinking by reading their words. Literature is significant in the present world because of its purpose and impact on a culture that is progressively disconnecting from interpersonal interaction.

Why is it important for us to know and understand the literary context and meaning of any literary piece? ›

Context provides meaning and clarity to the intended message. Context clues in a literary work create a relationship between the writer and reader, giving a deeper understanding of the intent and direction of the writing.

Who created American Regionalism? ›

Three artists who most exemplify American Regionalism are referred to as the Regionalist Triumvirate: Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton, and John Steuart Curry.

What are the characteristics of American Regionalism? ›

Regionalist art embraced the idea that the USA could provide for itself, representing a literal looking inwards of art rather than looking to the world. As a result, it was strongly nationalist, patriotic, and isolationist.

When was regionalism in American literature? ›

American literary regionalism or local color is a style or genre of writing in the United States that gained popularity in the mid to late 19th century into the early 20th century.

What is the importance of regionalism and its impact to? ›

Regionalism encourages local governments to pool resources, talent and efforts. Collaborating in this way creates more effective planning that all governments, both big and small, can participate in. It also creates a larger budget to deliver stronger results.

What is the importance of regional language in education? ›

Higher Rates of Participation: Studying in the native language results in higher attendance, motivation and increased confidence for speaking up among students and improved parental involvement and support in studies due to familiarity with the mother tongue.

Why is it important to know the literature of the different regions in the Philippines? ›

Writers of literary works from different regions have enriched our Filipino culture and these help in introducing and exploring our humanity as Filipino.

What is the importance of regional dialect? ›

Dialects also allow you to build deeper connections. Think of the way a stranger's eyes light up when you reveal that you share something in common. A shared language between two strangers can invoke that same joy, and the knowledge of a regional dialect can enhance that tenfold.

What is regionalism in your own words? ›

(riːdʒənəlɪzəm ) uncountable noun. Regionalism is a strong feeling of pride or loyalty that people in a region have for that region, often including a desire to govern themselves.

What is regionalism short answer? ›

Regionalism is a political ideology that seeks to increase the political power, influence, and/or self-determination of the people of one or more subnational regions.

What is regionalism brief answer? ›

According to standard definition “Regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular region, group of regions or other subnational entity.” The region as a social system is the relation between different groups of people.

How will the use of regional language benefit the learners? ›

It gives learners confidence and helps to affirm their cultural identity. This in turn has a positive impact on the way learners see the relevance of school to their lives.

What is the main objective of regional development? ›

Regional development aims to promote sustainable development, growth and competitiveness of the regions, the wellbeing of residents and the quality of the living environment. It is based on interaction between ministries, counties, municipalities and other operators.

What is a regional language called? ›

Regional dialect:

A regional dialect is not a distinct language but a variety of a language spoken in a particular area of a country. Some regional dialects have been given traditional names which mark them out as being significantly different from standard varieties spoken in the same place.

Why is it important for us to know and understand our own literature first? ›

It helps us to give our own real-life meaning. When you read a work of literature, you can experience things that don't happen in your life, and you can see yourself in different situations. You also learn about how people have dealt with problems throughout history, which can help you solve your own problems.

Why do regional language differences exist? ›

"A region's geographic location also has a direct influence on the development of a local tongue," Lantolf says. "Isolated areas, such as New Orleans, develop different dialects," he explains. "Where there is no contact between regions, entire words, languages and vernaculars can grow and evolve independently.


1. Accent Expert Gives a Tour of U.S. Accents - (Part One) | WIRED
2. How War Changed American Literature forever (A Survey from 1945-Present)
(Brianca Jay)
3. Realism in Art and Literature in the 19th Century
(NBC News Learn)
4. English 232 Regionalism and Local Color
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5. 2. Southern Society: Slavery, King Cotton, and Antebellum America's "Peculiar" Region
(Lovely Mendoza)
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