Chapter 6- Cognitive Development In Infancy And Toddlerhood Flashcards by Jennifer Nichols (2022)

This stage in Piaget's theory spans the first two years of life, infants and toddlers think with their eyes, ears, and hands

Sensorimotor stage

According to Piaget, these are specific psychological structures or organized ways of making sense of experience that change with age


According to Piaget, this involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment


According to Piaget, during this we use our current schemes to interpret the external world


According to Piaget, this means creating new schemes or adjusting old ones to produce a better fit with the environment


According to Piaget, this is a process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system


True or false: Piaget believed that infants already know a great deal about their world from the time they are born

False, at birth and infants know so little about their world that they cannot purposefully explore it

According to Piaget, this sensorimotor substage is when infants primary means of adapting to the environment is through reflexes

Reflexive schemes

According to Piaget, the sensorimotor substage include simple motor habits centered around the infants own body. Infants repeat chance behaviors largely motivated by basic needs

Primary circular reactions

According to Piaget, this sensorimotor substage is when babies try to repeat interesting events in the surrounding environment that are caused by their own actions

Secondary circular reactions

According to Piaget, this sensorimotor substage includes intentional or goal directed behavior and the ability to begin to attain object permanence, the ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

According to Piaget, this sensorimotor substage is when toddlers repeat behaviors with variation, producing new effects

Tertiary circular reaction

According to Piaget, this sensorimotor substage is one toddlers create internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate

Mental representation

According to Piaget, this is the ability to coordinate schemes deliberately to solve simple problems

Intentional, or goal-directed behavior

According to Piaget, this is the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight

Object permanence

According to Piaget, babies making this error if they reach several times for an object at a first hiding place, then see it move to a second, and still search for it in the first hiding place. Piaget concluded that they do not have a clear image of the object as persisting when hidden from view

A-not-B search error

Name the two most powerful mental representations

Images, or mental pictures of objects, people, and spaces

Concepts, categories in which similar objects or events are grouped together

In Piaget's theory, identify three new capacities that result from the ability to create mental representations

Enables toddlers to solve advanced object permanence problems involving invisible displacement, permits deferred imitation, and make-believe play

This involves finding a toy moved while out of sight, such as into a small box while under a cover

Invisible displacement

This is the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present

Deferred imitation

When children act out every day and imaginary activities

Make-believe play

Many studies show that infant understand concepts earlier/later than Piaget believed


To discover what infants know about hidden objects and other aspects of physical reality, researchers often use this. They may habituate babies to a physical event (expose them to the event until their looking declines) to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested. Or they may simply show babies an expected event (One that is consistent with reality) or an unexpected event, A variation of the first event that violates reality. Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world

Violation-of-expectation method

What are two reasons the violation-of-expectation method is controversial?

May indicate Limited awareness of physical events, not the full blown, conscious understanding that was Piaget's focus in requiring infants to act on their surroundings, as in searching for hidden objects

May reveal only babies perceptual preference for novelty, not their understanding of experience

What did Renée Baillargeon conclude about object permanence, based on the tests she gave to infants? Why are these findings controversial?

They claim to of found evidence for object permanence in the first few months of life. One study involved, after habituating to a short and tall carrot moving behind a screen, infants were given two test events. An expected event in which the short carrot moved behind a screen, could not be seen in its window, and reappeared on the other side. An unexpected event, in which the tall carrot moved behind a screen, cannot be seen in its window although it was taller than the windows lower edge, and reappeared.

Infants as young as 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 months looked longer at the unexpected event, suggesting that they had some awareness that an object moved behind a screen would continue to exist.

Controversial: several researchers using similar procedures failed to confirm the findings. Some critics question what babies looking preferences tell us about what they actually know

True or false: around 14 months, toddlers demonstrate a thorough understanding of hidden objects


Mastery of object permanence is a gradual/sudden achievement

Gradual. Babies understanding becomes increasingly complex with age: they must perceive an objects identity by integrating feature and movement information, distinguish the object from the barrier concealing it and the surface on which it rests, keep track of the objects whereabouts, and use this knowledge to obtain the object. Success at object search tasks coincides with rapid development of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex and with a wide variety of experiences

True or false: laboratory research on deferred imitation supports Piaget's conclusion that infants cannot mentally represent experience until about 18 months of age. Briefly explain your response

False, research has shown that 8 to 10 month old's ability to recall the location of hidden objects after delays of more than a minute, and 14-month-old's recall after delays of a day or more, clearly indicate that babies construct mental representations of objects and their whereabouts

Laboratory research reveals that deferred imitation is present at six weeks of age. Infants who watched an unfamiliar adults facial expression imitated it when exposed to the same adult the next day. In one study, adults showed six and a 19-month-old a novel series of actions with the puppet and when tested a day later, and infants who had seen the novel actions were far more likely to imitate them

By 10 to 12 months of age, infants can solve problems using this, meaning that they apply a solution strategy from one problem to other relevant problems

Solve problems by analogy

The realize Asian that words can be used to Q mental images of things not physically present. It is a symbolic capacity that emerges around the first birthday

Displaced reference

True or false: infants regard pictures as symbols of objects. Briefly explain your response

False, it emerges in the second year. Infants do not treat pictures as symbols, rather they touch rub and Pat a color photo of an object or pick it up and manipulate it, behaviors that reveal confusion about the pictures true nature

How do infants initially respond to video images of people? Give specific examples

As if they are viewing people directly-smiling, moving their arms and legs, and by six months of age imitating actions of a televised adult. They confuse the images with the real thing

Poor performance after a video of than a live demonstration.

In a series of studies, some two-year-olds watched through a window while a live adult hid an object in an adjoining room, while others watched the same event on a video screen. Children in the direct viewing condition retrieved the toy easily; those in the video condition had difficulty

Video deficit effect

Explanation: two-year-olds typically do not view a video character as offering socially relevant information. Toddler seem to discount information on video as relevant to their every day experiences because people do not look at and converse with them directly or establish a shared focus on objects

List several features that can be used to make video effective as a teaching tool for young children

When the video is rich in social cues-close-ups of characters who look directly at the camera, address questions to viewers, and pause to invite their response

True or false: recent research indicates that the cognitive attainments of infancy and toddler hood do in fact develop together in the neat, stepwise fashion that Piaget postulated

Falls. Capacities including secondary circular reactions, understanding of object properties, first signs of object permanence, deferred imitation, problem-solving by analogy, and displaced reference of words emerge earlier than Piaget expected

According to this perspective, babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought. Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development

Core knowledge perspective

What are four domains of thought studied by core knowledge theorists

Physical knowledge: object permanence, object solidity, and gravity

Linguistic knowledge: assume that an inherited foundation of linguistic knowledge enables swift language acquisition in early childhood

Psychological knowledge: understanding of mental states, such as intentions, emotions, desires, and beliefs

Numerical knowledge: quantities and simple arithmetic

True or false: research on the core knowledge perspective is less controversial than violation-of-expectation results

False, their findings like other violation of expectation results are controversial. In other experiment similar to those just described, looking preferences were inconsistent and critics take issue with the assumption that infants are endowed with knowledge. Looking may indicate only a perceptual preference, not the existence of concepts and reasoning

True or false: The core knowledge perspective acknowledges that experience is essential for children to extend their initial knowledge

True. But it has said little about which experiences are most important in each core domain of thought and how those experiences advanced children's thinking

Follow-up research on Piaget's sensorimotor stage yields broad agreement on two issues. List them

Many cognitive changes of infancy are gradual and continuous rather then abrupt end stage like as Piaget thought

Rather then developing together, various aspects of infant cognition change unevenly because of the challenges posed by different types of tasks and infants varying experiences with them

In what ways do information-processing researchers agree with Piaget's theory

They agree that children are active, inquiring beings

According to information-processing theory, as information flows through each part of the mental system for processing, the sensory register, the working or short-term memory, and long-term memory, people use these to operate on and transform the information, increasing the chances that we will retain information and use it efficiently, and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances

Mental strategies

According to information-processing theory, information enters this first, where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly

Sensory register

According to information processing theory, this is the second part of the mind where we actively apply mental strategies as we work on a limited amount of information. Mental strategies are used to synthesize information

Working, or short-term memory

According to information processing theory, this is the third and largest storage area, comprising the brains permanent knowledge base

Long-term memory

To manage it's complex activities, a special part of working memory directs the flow of information. It decides what to attend to, coordinates incoming information with information already in the system, and selects, applies, and monitors strategies. It is the conscious, reflective part of our mental system and directs such activities as comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving

Central executive

Long-term memory has a limited/unlimited capacity

Unlimited. In fact, we store so much in long-term memory that retrieval can be problematic so information is categorized according to a master plan based on content much like a library shelving system that allows us to retrieve items by following the same network of association is used to store them in the first place

Information-processing researchers believe that the structure/capacity of a human mental system is similar throughout life

Structure. The capacity of the system-the amount of information that can be retained and processed at once-and the speed with which it can be processed increases, making more complex forms of thinking possible with age

What two factors do researchers believe are responsible for gains in information-processing capacity?

Brain development and improvement and strategies-such as attending to information and categorizing it effectively

List three ways in which attention improves during infancy

Between one and two months of age, infants shift from focusing on single, high contrast features of their visual world to exploring objects and patterns more thoroughly.

Gradually become more efficient at managing their attention, taking in information more quickly with age

The time it takes to habituate and recover to novel visual stimuli decreases by four or five months

Their attention becomes increasingly flexible and voluntary by becoming future oriented

In toddlerhood, attention to novelty declines and this improves, increasing the capacity for goal directed behavior

Sustained attention

Explain how adults can foster sustained attention during infancy and toddler hood

By taking note of an infant or toddler's current interest and encouraging it and prompting the child to stay focused. Infants and toddlers gradually become more interested in what others are attending to

True or false: from the first few months of life, infant memory for operant responses is independent of context, meaning that infants apply learned responses to relevant new situations

False, at first, infants memory for operant responses is highly context dependent. If 2 to 6 month olds are not tested in the same situation in which they were trained with the same mobile and crib bumper and in the same room, they remember poorly. After nine months, the importance of context declines. As babies move on their own and experience frequent changes in context, they apply learned responses more flexibly, generalizing them to relevant new situations

True or false: habituation research confirms that infants need to be physically active to acquire new information

False, studies show that infants learn and retain a wide variety of information just by watching objects and events, without being physically active

Noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced. It is the easiest form of memory: all babies have to do is indicate by kicking, pressing a lever, or looking, whether a new experience is identical or similar to a previous one


A more challenging form of memory because it involves remembering something without perceptual support. Generating a mental image of a past experience


Can infants engage in recall? Explain.

By the middle of the first year, infants can recall, as indicated by their ability to imitate actions hours or days after observing the behavior. Recall memory improves steadily with age

The fact that most of us cannot retrieve events that happened to us before age 3

Infantile amnesia

Recall of personally meaningful one time events from both the recent and distant past is called

Autobiographical memory

Provide two explanations for infantile amnesia

Brain development-suggests that vital changes in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex pave the way for an explicit memory system-one in which children remember deliberately rather than implicitly, without conscious awareness

Older children and adults often use verbal means for storing information, whereas infants and toddlers memory processing is largely nonverbal-an incompatibility that may prevent long-term retention of experiences

Explain how the phenomenon of infantile amnesia can be reconciled with infants and toddlers remarkable memory skills

During the first few years, children rely heavily on non-verbal memory techniques, such as visual images and motor actions. But as language develops, their ability to use it to refer to preverbal memories requires strong contextual cues, such as direct exposure to the physical setting of the to be recalled experience. Only after age 3 do children often represent events verbally and as children encode autobiographical events in verbal form, they can use language-based cues to retrieve them, increasing the accessibility of those memories at later ages

Research suggests that _______ and ________ __________ contribute to the end of infantile amnesia

Biology and social experience

Explain how categorization helps infants make sense of experience

It reduces the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day so they can learn and remember

Or false: findings revealed that in the second half of the first year, as long as they have sufficient familiarity with category members, infants group objects into an impressive array of categories


Briefly explain three views on how infants gain skill in categorization

One view holds that older infants and toddlers categorize more effectively because they become increasingly sensitive to fine-grained perceptual features and two stable relations among those features-for example, objects with flapping wings and feathers belong to one category and objects with rigid wings, windows, and a smooth surface belong to another category

Another view is that before the end of the first year, babies undergo a fundamental shift from a perceptual to a conceptual basis for constructing categories, increasingly grouping objects by their common function or behavior such as birds versus airplanes, cars versus motorcycles, dogs versus cats

A third view that stems from the core knowledge perspective, assumes at inherited foundation of conceptual knowledge, which is enlarged and refined with experience

True or false: research has found that all infants, regardless of their culture or native language, sort objects in the same way

False, variations among languages lead to cultural differences and development of categories. Korean toddlers, learn a language in which object names are often omitted from sentences, develop object sorting skills later than their English-speaking counterparts. At the same time, Korean contains a common word kkita with no English equivalent, referring to a tight fit between objects in contact, and cream toddlers are Vance in forming the spatial category tight fit

This theory sees children as active explorers whose thinking develops as they act directly on the environment. Children move through four stages between infancy and adolescence where all aspects of cognition develop in an integrated fashion, changing in a similar way at about the same time

Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory

Information-processing research underscores the continuity/discontinuity of human thinking from infancy into adulthood

Continuity. Findings on memory and categorization join with other research and challenging Piaget's view of early cognitive development. Infants capacity to recall events and to categorize stimuli attests to their ability to mentally represent their experiences

What is the greatest drawback of the information-processing approach to cognitive development?

Information-processing theory analyzes cognition into its components such as perception, attention, memory, and categorization but has had difficulty putting these components back together into a broad, comprehensive theory

Vygotsky believed that _______ ________ ________, such as voluntary attention, deliberate memory, categorization, and problem solving, have their origins in _______ ________.

Complex mental activities; social interaction

According to Vygotsky, this refers to a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of a more skilled partner

Zone of proximal or potential development

How do adults use scaffolding to introduce children to new tasks?

A sensitive adult introduces a child to a new activity by picking a task that the child can master but that is challenging enough that the child cannot do it by themselves or the adult capitalizes on an activity that the child has chosen. The adult guides and supports, adjusting the level of support offered to fit the child's current level of performance. As a child joins in the interaction and picks up mental strategies, their competence increases, and the adult steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task

Briefly summarize Vygotsky's view of make-believe play

He believed that society provides children with opportunities to represent culturally meaningful activities in play. Make-believe, like other complex mental activities, is first learned under the guidance of experts

Explain why adults participation in toddlers make-believe play is so important. (Vygotsky)

When adults participate, toddlers make-believe play is more elaborate. They are more likely to combine schemes into complex sequences. The more parents pretend with their toddlers, the more time their children devote to make-believe

True or false: in some cultures, such as those of Indonesia and Mexico, make-believe play is more frequent and more complex with older siblings than with mothers. Briefly explain your response

True, as early as age 3 to 4, children provide Rich and challenging stimulation to their younger brothers and sisters, take these teaching responsibilities seriously, and with age become better at them

Mental test focus on this, measuring behaviors that reflect development and arriving at scores that predict future performance

Cognitive products

Briefly explain why it is difficult to measure babies intelligence

Because young babies cannot answer questions or follow directions. All we can do is present them with stimuli, coax them to respond, and observe their behavior.

Most infant tests emphasize ________ and ___________ responses

Perceptual and motor

One commonly used infant test is this, designed for children between one month and 3 1/2 years of age and includes a cognitive scale, language scale, and motor scale

Bayley scales of infant development

Intelligence tests are scored by computing this, which indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from typical performance of same age individuals

Intelligence quotient IQ

In constructing intelligence tests, designers engage in this, giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as a standard for interpreting scores


Within the standardization sample, performances at each age level form this, in which most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward the extremes. This bell-shaped distribution results whenever researchers measure individual differences in large samples

Normal distribution

When intelligence tests are standardized, the mean IQ is set at

100, and individuals IQ is higher or lower than 100 by an amount that reflects how much his or her test performance deviates from the standardization sample mean

True or false: scores on infinite intelligence tests are excellent predictors of later intelligence. Briefly explain your response

False, longitudinal research reveals that the majority of children's show substantial fluctuations in IQ between toddlerhood and adolescence- typically 10 to 20 points and sometimes much more. Infants and toddlers easily become distracted, fatigue, or bored during testing so their scores often do not reflect their true abilities. And infant perceptual and motor items differ from the tasks given two older children, which increasingly emphasize verbal, conceptual, and problem-solving skills

Due to concerns that infant test Coors do not have the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages, they are labeled this rather than IQs

Developmental quotients DQ's

For what purpose are infinite intelligence tests largely used?

Infant tests are somewhat better at making long-term projections for extremely low scoring babies. Today, they are largely used for screening-helping to identify for further observation and intervention babies whose very low scores mean that they are likely to have developmental problems

Why do you habituation and recovery and Piagetian object permanence tasks predict later I Q more effectively than traditional infant intelligence tests?

Habituation and recovery seem to be especially effective early indexes of intelligence because they assess memory as well as quickness and flexibility of thinking, which underlie intelligent behavior at all ages. Piagetian object permanence tasks are also relatively good predictors of later IQ, perhaps because they too, reflect a basic intellectual process-problem-solving

A checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview

Home observation for measurement of the environment HOME

What are factors evaluated by HOME?

Emotional and verbal responsiveness of the parent, parental acceptance of the child, organization of the physical environment, provision of appropriate play materials, parental involvement with the child, opportunities for variety in daily stimulation

Regardless of SES and ethniccity, what aspects measured by HOME repeatedly predict better language and IQ scores in toddlerhood and early childhood?

And organized, stimulating physical setting and parental affection, involvement, and encouragement of new skills. The extent to which parents talk to infants and toddlers is particularly important because it contributes strongly to early language progress which protects intelligence and academic achievement in elementary school

What are ways in which both heredity and home environment contribute to mental test scores?

Heredity: parents who are genetically more intelligent may provide better experiences while also giving birth to genetically brighter children, who evoke more stimulation from their parents. This is referred to as a genetic-environmental correlation

Home environment: family living conditions, both HOME scores and affluence of the surrounding neighborhood, continue to predict children's IQ beyond the contribution of parental IQ and education. For instance, infants and children going growing up in less crowded homes had parents who are far more verbally responsive to them a major contributor to language, intellectual, and academic progress

Today more than ____ percent of US mothers with children under age 2 are employed


List some of the consequences of low-versus high-quality childcare for mental development

Low-quality: children score lower on measures of cognitive, language, and social skills during the preschool and elementary years

High-quality: can reduce the negative impact of a stressed, poverty-stricken home life, and it sustains the benefits of growing up in an economically advantage family

Describe the overall condition of child care for infants and toddlers in the United States

US childcare raises serious concerns. Standards are set by the individual states and vary widely, in studies of quality, only 20 to 25% of childcare centers and family child care centers provided infants and toddlers with sufficiently positive, stimulating experiences to promote healthy psychological development. Most settings offer substandard care

In the United States, childcare settings that serve low SES/middle SES families tend to provide the worst care. Briefly explain your response

Middle SES. These parents are specially likely to place their children in for profit centers, we're quality tends to be lowest. Low SES children more often attend publicly subsidized, nonprofit centers, which have smaller group sizes and better teacher-child ratios

List and briefly describe at least four signs of developmentally appropriate practice in infant and toddler child care

Physical setting: Indoor environment is clean, in good repair, well lighted, and well went ventilated. Fenced outdoor play space is available. Setting does not appear overcrowded when children are present

Toys and equipment: play materials are appropriate for infants and toddlers and are stored on low shelves within easy reach. Cribs, highchairs, infant seats, and child size tables and chairs are available. Outdoor equipment includes small riding toys, swings, slide, and sandbox

Caregiver-child ratio: caregiver-child ratio is no greater than 1 to 3 for infants and 1 to 6 for toddlers. Group size or number of children in one room is no greater than six infants with two caregivers and 12 toddlers with two caregivers. In family childcare, caregiver is responsible for no more than six children and within this group no more than two are infants or toddlers. Staffing is consistent, so infants and toddlers can form relationships with particular caregivers

Daily activities: daily schedule includes time for active play, quietly, naps, snacks, and meals. It is flexible rather than Rigid, to meet the needs of individual children. Atmosphere is warm and supportive, and children are never left unsupervised

Interactions among adults and children: caregivers respond promptly to infants and toddlers distress; hold, talk to you, sing, and read to them; and interact with them in a manner that respects the individual child's interests and tolerance for stimulation

Caregiver qualifications: caregiver has some training in child development, first aid, and safety

Relationships with parents: parents are welcome anytime and caregivers talk frequently with parents about children's behavior and development

Describe center and home based interventions for infants and toddlers

Center-based: children attend an organized childcare or preschool program where they receive educational, nutritional, and health services and their parents receive child-rearing and other social service support

Home-based. A skilled adult visits the home and works with parents, providing social support and teaching them how to stimulate a very young child's development

Discuss the effectiveness of early intervention programs with regard to infant and toddler mental development

Children score higher than untreated controls on mental test by age 2. The earlier intervention begins, the longer it lasts, and the greater it's scope and intensity the better participants cognitive and academic performance is throughout childhood and adolescence

Briefly describe the Carolina Abecedarian project, and summarize the outcomes of this program

In the 1970s, more than 100 infants from property stricken families, ranging in age from three weeks to three months, were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a control group. Treatment infants were enrolled in full time, year-round child care throughout the preschool years where they receive stimulation aimed at promoting motor, cognitive, language, and social skills and after age 3 literacy and math concepts. Special emphasis was placed on Rich, responsive adult-child verbal communication. All children receive nutrition and health services; the primary difference between treatment and controls was the intensive child-care experience

By 12 months of age, the IQs of the two groups diverged. Treatment children sustained there at Vantage until last tested at age 21. In addition, throughout their years of schooling, treatment youth achieved considerably higher scores in reading and math and these gains translated into more years of schooling completed, higher rates of college enrollment and employment and skill jobs, and lower rates of drug use and adolescent parenthood

What is early Headstart? Cite three services available through early Headstart

Serves low income families and offers an array of coordinated services-childcare, educational experiences for infants and toddlers, parenting education, family social support, and health care-delivered through a center-based, home-based, or mixed approach, depending on community needs

On average, children say their first word at how many months of age?

12 months of age

According to the behaviorist perspective, what to processes account for early language acquisition, and how do they do so?

Operant conditioning: as the baby makes sounds, parents reinforce those that are most like words with smiles, hugs, and speech in return

Imitation: helps children to rapidly acquire complex utterances such as whole phrases and sentences

Why is the behaviorist perspective an incomplete explanation of early language development?

Young children create many novel utterances that are not reinforced by or copied from others and when they do imitate others language, they do so selectively, focusing mainly on building their vocabulary and on refining aspects of language that they are working on at the moment

According to Chomsky's nativist perspective, all children have a ________ __________ ______, and innate system containing a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages, that enables them to understand and speak as soon as they pick up enough words

Language acquisition device LAD

provide evidence supporting Chomsky's view that human infants are biologically primed to acquire language

Newborn babies are remarkably sensitive to speech sounds. Children everywhere reach major language milestones any similar sequence. The ability to master a grammatically complex language system seems to be unique to humans as teaching nonhuman primate has been met with limited success. Evidence for specialized language areas in the brain and a sensitive period for language development have also being interpreted as supporting Chomsky's theory

Name the two language-specific areas of the brain, and cite the function of each

Broca's area: located in the left frontal lobe, supports grammatical processing and language production

Wernick's area: located in the left temporal lobe, plays a role in comprehending word meaning

True or false: if the left-hemispheric region is injured in the early years, other regions of the brain take over its language functions


True or false: acquiring a second language is harder after a sensitive. Has passed. Briefly explain your response

True. In one study that asked immigrants from non-English-speaking countries who had resided in the United States for at least 10 years how competently they spoke English, as age of immigration increased from infancy and early childhood into adulthood, English proficiency declined. ERP and fMRI measures of brain activity indicate that second language processing is less lateralized in older then in younger learners. Second language competence is characterized by a continuous, age-related decrease

True or false: research supports the idea that there is a biologically-based sensitive period for optimum language development


List two challenges to Chomsky's theory

Researchers have had great difficulty specifying Chomsky's universal grammar. A major problem is the absence of a complete description of these abstract grammatical structures or even an agreed on the list of how many exist or the best examples of them. Critics doubt that one set of rules can account for the extraordinary variation in grammatical forms among the world's languages and how children manage to link such rules with the strings of words they hear is also unclear

Chomsky's assumption that grammatical knowledge is innately determined does not fit with certain observations of language development. If it did, we would expect children to apply their innate grammatical structure to all relevant instances in their language but they often refine and generalize many grammatical forms gradually, engaging in much piecemeal learning and making errors along the way

Name and summarize two views of the interactionist perspective of language development

Applying the information-processing perspective: assumes that children make sense of their complex language environments by applying powerful cognitive capacities of a general kind

Emphasizing social interaction: children social skills and language experiences are sensually involved in language development. An active child, well endowed for making sense of language, strives to communicate and in doing so, she cues her caregivers to provide appropriate language experiences, which helps her relate content and structure of language to it social meanings

Around two months of age, babies begin to make vowel-like noises called

Cooing. Because of their pleasant oo quality

Around six months of age, this appears, and which infants repeat consonant-vowel combinations, often in long strings, such as babababa or nananana


What does research on deaf born infants reveal about an early sensitive period for language development

Both deaf and hearing babies babble at about the same age and produce a similar range of sounds but for babbling to develop further, infants must be able to hear human speech. In hearing impaired babies, the speech like sounds are greatly delayed and a deaf infant not exposed to sign language will stop babbling entirely. If cochlear implants occurs after age 4, language delays are severe and persistent. These outcomes suggest an early sensitive period for the brain to develop the necessary organization for normal speech processing

When the child attends to the same object or event as a caregiver, who often labels it. Contributes greatly to early language development

Joint attention.

Infants and toddlers who engage in joint attention sustain attention longer, comprehend more language, produce meaningful gestures and words earlier, and show faster vocabulary development through two years of age. Gains in joint attention at the end of the first year enable babies to establish a common ground with the adult, through which they can figure out the meaning of the adults verbal labels

Explain how caregivers can support conversational give-and-take in babies

They practice the turn taking pattern of human conversation, a vital context for acquiring language and communication skills. Infants play maturity and vocalizations during games predict advanced language progress in the second year. For example Patticake and peekaboo games where at 12 months, babies participate actively, trading rules with the caregiver

At the end of the first year, infants use this to direct adults attention, to influence their behavior, and to convey helpful information.

Preverbal gestures.

Infant pointing predicts faster vocabulary development over the second year. 12 month olds adapt these gestures to the needs of others, for instance, in one study they pointed more often to an object who's location a searching adult did not know then to an object was location the adult didn't know

Briefly describe the nature of toddlers' first words. For example, to which subjects to these words commonly referred?

First spoken words, around one year, build on the sensorimotor foundations Piaget described and on categories and fins have formed. In a study, the first 10 words used by children were common objects such as ball and bread, important people such as mama and dada, and sound effects woof woof or vroom

Other studies have shown that earliest words usually include people, objects that move, foods, animals especially in families with pets, familiar actions, outcomes of such actions, and social terms

When young children first learn words, they sometimes apply them to narrowly, an error called:

Under extension. Example, using bear only to refer to the worn and tattered teddy bear and not bears in the wild

When Young children apply a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate

Overextension. Example, using car for buses, trains, trucks, and fire engines

List three developments that support rapid vocabulary growth during toddlerhood

Over the second year, toddlers improve in ability to categorize experience, recall words, and grasp others' social cues to meaning, such as eye gaze, pointing, and handling objects

As their experiences broaden, they have a wider range of interesting objects and events to label

As they construct a clearer self image, they add more words that refer to themselves and to their own and others bodies and clothing

Two word utterances are called this because, like a telegram, they focus on high content words, omitting smaller, less important ones. Children use them to express an impressive variety of meanings

Telegraphic speech

The words and word combinations children use

Language production

The language children understand


Comprehension/production requires that children recognize only the meaning of a word, but for comprehension/production, children must recall not only the word but also the concept for which it stands

Comprehension; production

True or false: early vocabulary development proceeds at about the same rate for boys and girls

False, many studies show that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early vocabulary growth. The most common explanation is girls faster rate of physical maturation, which is believed to promote earlier development of the left cerebral hemisphere

Explain how a child's environment influences language development

The more words caregivers use, the more children learn. Limited parent-child book reading is a major factor, on average, a middle SES child is read to you for 1000 hours between one and five years, a low SES child for only 25 hours and as a result low SES kindergartners have vocabularies only one fourth as large as those of higher SES age mates

A style in which children's vocabularies consist mainly of words that refer to objects

Referential style

A style in which toddlers when compared to referential children, produce many more social formulas and pronouns

Expressive style

Expressive/referential style is associated with faster vocabulary development

Referential style toddlers grow faster because all languages contain many more object labels then social terms

What are factors that influence the development of referential and expressive styles?

Rapidly developing referential style children often have an especially active interest in exploring objects and they also eagerly imitate their parents frequent meaning of objects and their parents imitate back

Expressive style children tend to be highly sociable, and their parents more often use verbal routines that support social relationships

Also linked to culture: object words are particularly common in the vocabularies of English-speaking toddlers, but Chinese, Japanese, and Korean toddlers have more words for actions and social routines

A form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts

Child-directed speech CDS

Describe three ways in which caregivers can support early language learning

Respond to coos and babbles with speech sounds and words: encourages experimentation with sound that can be later blended into first words and with the turn taking pattern of human conversation

Establish joint attention and comment on what child sees: predicts earlier onset of language and faster vocabulary development

Please social games, such as Patticake and peekaboo: provides experience with turn taking pattern of human conversation

Engage toddlers in make-believe play

Engage toddlers in frequent conversations

Read to toddlers often

True or false: parent-toddler conversation strongly predict early language development and academic success during the school years. Briefly explain your response

True. CDS and parent-child conversation create a zone of proximal development in which children's language expands. In contrast, and patients with and rejection of children's efforts to talk lead them to stop trying and result in immature language skills

True or false: over 90% of deaf children have hearing parents who are fluent in sign language

False. Over 90% of deaf children have hearing parents who are not fluent in sign language

Describe outcomes for children who have hearing parents not fluent in sign language

In toddlerhood an early childhood, these children often are delayed in development of language and make-believe play. In middle childhood, many achieve poorly in school, are deficient in social skills, and display and impulse control problems

Discuss differences in parent-child communication experienced by deaf children of hearing parents and deaf children of death parents

Children of hearing parents: less positive, less responsive to their child's efforts to communicate, less effective at achieving joint attention and turn taking, less involved in play, and more directive and intrusive

Children of death parents: resembles that of hearing children and hearing parents


What are the 6 stages of cognitive development? ›

Sub-Stages: Development & Examples. The sensorimotor stage of development can be broken down into six additional sub-stages including simple reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination of reactions, tertiary circular reactions, and early symbolic thought.

How would you describe cognitive development in infancy? ›

In the first year, babies learn to focus their vision, reach out, explore, and learn about the things that are around them. Cognitive, or brain development means the learning process of memory, language, thinking, and reasoning. Learning language is more than making sounds (“babble”), or saying “ma-ma” and “da-da”.

How do you memorize Piaget's stages of cognitive development? ›

The mnemonic to remember these four stages is: Some People Can fly. So you can see sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, and formal operational and some people can fly.

Who Developed 6 stages of development? ›

Lawrence Kohlberg's theory claims that our development of moral reasoning happens in six stages. The stages themselves are structured in three levels: Pre-Conventional, Conventional and Post-Conventional.

What are five examples of cognitive development activities? ›

Read books and tell jokes and riddles. Encourage stacking and building games or play with cardboard boxes. Do simple jigsaw puzzles and memory games. Play games that combine moving and singing – for example, 'If you're happy and you know it'.

What are examples of cognitive exercises? ›

22 brain exercises to improve memory, cognition, and creativity
  • Meditation.
  • Visualizing more.
  • Playing games.
  • Card games.
  • Crosswords.
  • Puzzles.
  • Sudoku.
  • Chess.
27 Jan 2021

What is a good cognitive activity? ›

A good cognitive activity is something that challenges your mind and forces you to think in new ways. Puzzles, problem-solving, learning a new skill or language, and strategic games like chess are all excellent choices.

What is cognitive skills in toddlers? ›

Cognitive development means how children think, explore and figure things out. It is the development of knowledge, skills, problem solving and dispositions, which help children to think about and understand the world around them.

What are cognitive activities? ›

1. High-level activities such as problem solving, decision making, and sense making that involve using, working with, and thinking with information.

What are the 4 aspects of cognitive development? ›

Cognitive development is how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of their world through the relations of genetic and learning factors. There are four stages to cognitive information development. They are, reasoning, intelligence, language, and memory.

Why is cognitive development important in infants and toddlers? ›

Why is Cognitive Development important? Cognitive development provides children with the means of paying attention to thinking about the world around them. Everyday experiences can impact a child's cognitive development.

Why is infant cognitive development important? ›

About newborn play and cognitive development

These responsive interactions stimulate your baby's brain, creating millions of connections. Through these interactions your baby also learns about the world – whether the world is safe and secure, whether they're loved, who loves them and much more.

What are the 3 main cognitive theories? ›

There are three types of cognitive development theories in human which are Piaget's Cognitive development theory, Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive theory and Information-Processing theory.

What is cognitive mnemonic? ›

Mnemonics (Memory Aids) for cognitive

nit- similar to wit,,ie, related with respect to knowledge and mental processes. also , gn- which may bring in mind,gnana, ie, knowledge.

Why is Piaget's stages of cognitive development important? ›

Piaget's theory of cognitive development helped add to our understanding of children's intellectual growth. It also stressed that children were not merely passive recipients of knowledge. Instead, kids are constantly investigating and experimenting as they build their understanding of how the world works.

What are the 6 types of development? ›

Our new Thrive philosophy is born from six stages of human development: social-emotional, intellectual, moral, psychological, physical, and spiritual.

What are the 6 domains of development? ›

There are six developmental domains: physical, cognitive, language, social-emotional, self-regulation, and executive function. Each domain represents a different area of child development. Physical development includes gross and fine motor skills, as well as health and well-being.

What are the 6 developmental theories? ›

These six theories about development that we will discuss from an evolutionary perspective are the Gestalt, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, Piaget, and Vygotski.

What can teachers do to promote cognitive development? ›

Supporting Cognitive Development

Encouraging problem-solving in the classroom. Making planful choices when arranging the classroom environment. The value and importance of play. Using active music and play experiences to support infant and toddler thinking.

What are the 8 cognitive abilities? ›

The 8 Core Cognitive Capacities
  • Sustained Attention.
  • Response Inhibition.
  • Speed of Information Processing.
  • Cognitive Flexibility.
  • Multiple Simultaneous Attention.
  • Working Memory.
  • Category Formation.
  • Pattern Recognition.
26 Nov 2020

How do you teach students cognitive skills? ›

Keep home and school activities fun and exciting.

Almost all activities can help in the development of cognitive skills since kids learn most about the world around them through play. Parents can expose their children to different toys and teach children a variety of games to cater to specific areas of development.

What cognitive processes are used in daily activities? ›

Here are some common types of cognitive processes that humans often display:
  • Attention. Focusing on stimuli in your environment often requires conscious effort. ...
  • Thought. ...
  • Perception. ...
  • Memory. ...
  • Language. ...
  • Learning. ...
  • Communication. ...
  • Analysis.
7 Jul 2021

What are some examples of cognitive development in toddlers? ›

Cognitive skills such as following directions, engaging in imaginative play, and sorting shapes are part of toddler cognitive development. Furthermore, these tasks or behaviors that most children complete by a certain age are referred to as developmental milestones.

What strategies parents can use to increase cognitive stimulation early on? ›

10 Ideas for a Family Fresh Start: Improve Cognitive Skills
  • Play Outside. Outdoor playtime has been shown as a particularly effective way to improve cognition in kids. ...
  • Go on Field Trips. ...
  • Put on Music. ...
  • Learn Shapes and Colors. ...
  • Ask a Lot of Questions. ...
  • Encourage Help With Chores. ...
  • Do Art Projects. ...
  • Look in the Mirror.

How do toys help cognitive development? ›

A child's cognitive development involves thinking skills - the ability to process information to understand how the world works. Toys and play naturally provide opportunities for practicing different thinking skills, such as imitation, cause and effect, problem solving, and symbolic thinking.

Why are puzzles good for cognitive development? ›

Cognitive learning is characterized by comprehension, organizing ideas and applying knowledge through choice and evaluation. When children play with puzzles, they learn the power of choice and strategy as they begin to recognize and thoughtfully understand how pieces fit together to complete a larger picture.

Which exercise is best for brain? ›

Brain-boosting exercises
  1. Aerobic exercise. Regular aerobic exercise boosts blood flow to your brain, and also boosts the size of your hippocampus, the part of your brain that's involved in verbal memory and learning, Small says. ...
  2. Weight training. ...
  3. Yoga. ...
  4. Tai chi.
2 Mar 2022

What are the 5 characteristics of cognitive development? ›

Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence , reasoning, language development , and memory.

What are signs of cognitive development? ›

Chart: Cognitive Developmental Milestones
  • Looks around at things nearby.
  • Brings things to mouth.
  • Shows curiosity about things and tries to get things that are out of reach.
  • Begins to pass things from one hand to another.

What are the 9 cognitive skills? ›

Cognitive Skills
  • Sustained Attention. Allows a child to stay focused on a single task for long periods of time.
  • Selective Attention. ...
  • Divided Attention. ...
  • Long-Term Memory. ...
  • Working Memory. ...
  • Logic and Reasoning. ...
  • Auditory Processing. ...
  • Visual Processing.

Which teaching method is best applied to a cognitive learning need? ›

that in the university teaching and learning set up, the discussion method of teaching and learning was the most appropriate for the achievement of higher cognitive concepts such as analysis, synthesis, application and evaluation.

What is cognitive learning examples? ›

Examples of cognitive learning strategies include:

Encouraging discussions about what is being taught. Helping students explore and understand how ideas are connected. Asking students to justify and explain their thinking. Using visualizations to improve students' understanding and recall.

What is the most important stage of cognitive development? ›

Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).

What are the basic cognitive concepts? ›

Summary. Piaget's theory of cognitive development is based on the belief that a child gains thinking skills in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. These stages roughly correspond to specific ages, from birth to adulthood.

What are the principles of cognitive development? ›

The basic four principles to Piaget's infant cognitive development are schemas, assimilation, accommodation, and adaption. Schemas are defined as build blocks of knowledge. Assimilation is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.

What are the major factors influencing cognitive development? ›

Perception, thinking, memory, concepts, language, metacognition, problem solving, and social cognition are the developments that happen at the early childhood years. Cognitive development and growth of toddler depends on the genes, nutrition and environment.

What factors affect cognitive development in infants? ›

Children's cognitive development is affected by several types of factors including: (1) biological (e.g., child birth weight, nutrition, and infectious diseases) [6, 7], (2) socio-economic (e.g., parental assets, income, and education) [8], (3) environmental (e.g., home environment, provision of appropriate play ...

What are cognitive needs of a child? ›

Cognitive skill development in children involves the progressive building of learning skills, such as attention, memory and thinking. These crucial skills enable children to process sensory information and eventually learn to evaluate, analyze, remember, make comparisons and understand cause and effect.

What are the most important goals for infants and toddlers? ›

For toddlers, learning to feed themselves and becoming toilet trained are important and exciting accomplishments. These markers provide the necessary starting point for growth and learning during the preschool years.

What are the major cognitive achievements of infancy? ›

This is also when infants develop object permanence, which is the ability to understand that something still exists even if it can't be seen. These two milestones, goal-directed behavior and object permanence, are the highlights and major accomplishments of infant cognitive development.

What are the cognitive development 5 to 6 years old? ›

School-age children can pay attention for longer now. Your child understands simple concepts like time (today, tomorrow, yesterday), knows the seasons, recognises some words by sight and tries to sound out words. Your child might even read on their own.

What are the stages of cognitive development from birth to 7 years? ›

Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development are:
  • Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months.
  • Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7)
  • Concrete operational. Ages 7 to 11.
  • Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood.
17 Aug 2020

What are the 8 cognitive abilities? ›

The 8 Core Cognitive Capacities
  • Sustained Attention.
  • Response Inhibition.
  • Speed of Information Processing.
  • Cognitive Flexibility.
  • Multiple Simultaneous Attention.
  • Working Memory.
  • Category Formation.
  • Pattern Recognition.
26 Nov 2020

What are the 5 characteristics of cognitive development? ›

Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence , reasoning, language development , and memory.

What is the cognitive development for a 6 7 year old? ›

At this stage, children typically:

Begin to enjoy dramatic play and assume different roles. Learn to question things. Begin to understand numerical concepts (but still need experiences with real objects). Read and write simple words, sentences and texts.

What are the cognitive characteristics? ›

Cognitive characteristics refer to brain based processes. In the short film at the top of this page Dr Vicky Johnson introduces the term 'executive functions'. These are brain based processes that control and regulate our behaviour.

What are the four major stages of cognitive development? ›

Sensorimotor stage (0–2 years old) Preoperational stage (2–7 years old) Concrete operational stage (7–11 years old) Formal operational stage (11 years old through adulthood)

What is the cognitive development of a 5 7 year old? ›

Middle childhood (ages 5-7)

They are developing their oral language skills, acquiring new vocabulary and sentence structures. They can compose sentences with five or more words. They enjoy planning and building. They understand concepts of space, time, and dimension.

What are the 4 cognitive processes? ›

The steps involved in cognitive processing include attention, language, memory, perception, and thought.

What are the 3 important cognitive skills you need to develop? ›

There are 5 primary cognitive skills: reading, learning, remembering, logical reasoning, and paying attention. Each of these can be utilized in a way that helps us become better at learning new skills and developing ourselves.

What are example of cognitive skills? ›

Attention, memory, visual processing and problem-solving are examples of cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are the foundation for learning.

Which activity is an example of a cognitive skill? ›

An example of a cognitive skill is memory. Memory, whether short-term (15-30 seconds) or long-term, is the ability to recall specific events or details.

What are cognitive development activities? ›

Read books and tell jokes and riddles. Encourage stacking and building games or play with cardboard boxes. Do simple jigsaw puzzles and memory games. Play games that combine moving and singing – for example, 'If you're happy and you know it'.

Which stage in cognitive development is most important? ›

Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).

What are the 9 cognitive skills? ›

Cognitive Skills
  • Sustained Attention. Allows a child to stay focused on a single task for long periods of time.
  • Selective Attention. ...
  • Divided Attention. ...
  • Long-Term Memory. ...
  • Working Memory. ...
  • Logic and Reasoning. ...
  • Auditory Processing. ...
  • Visual Processing.

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