Early Peer Relations and their Impact on Children’s Development | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (2022)

Dale F. Hay, PhD
Cardiff University, United Kingdom

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Introduction

Students of child development have always drawn attention to the importance of peers, especially in adolescence, when peers may facilitate each other’s antisocial behaviour. It has often been assumed that peers are less important in early childhood, when relationships with family members are more influential. However, recent research shows clearly that even infants spend time with peers, and that some three- and four-year-olds are already having trouble being accepted by their peers. Early problems with peers have negative consequences for the child’s later social and emotional development. To understand why some children find it hard to relate to peers, it is important to study the early development of peer relations.

(Video) What can we learn from children's peer relationships? | Robin Banerjee | TEDxSussexUniversity

Subject

The topic of early peer relations is relevant to policy-makers and service-providers in the educational, social-service and mental-health sectors. In Western society, virtually all children are educated in the company of their peers; in some countries, such as the U.K., statutory education begins as early as four years of age. Problematic peer relations may have adverse effects on the transition to school, with subsequent consequences for academic success. Furthermore, even younger infants and toddlers often spend time with peers through informal arrangements between parents or formal child-care provision. There is considerable interest in the impact of early child care on development, but relatively few studies that actually investigate the quality of peer relations in the child- care context. It is especially important to study peer relations for children with special educational needs. The principle of “mainstreaming” children with special needs is based on the assumption that it is beneficial for such children to spend their days with typically developing peers; however, if those experiences are highly negative, experience with peers may interfere with educational goals.

Problems

There are several important problems to address, which may be framed in terms of the following research questions:

(Video) 4. Early Childhood Development in a Time of Pandemic: Peer Relations

  • 1. When do children first develop the ability to relate to other children their own age?
  • 2. What skills promote early peer relations?
  • 3. Why are some young children less likely to be accepted by their peers?
  • 4. Do early peer relations have a long-term impact on the child’s development?

Research Context

The information comes from a diverse group of studies. These include experimental and observational studies of infants’ and toddlers’ interaction with their peers; longitudinal studies of children’s social development; educational and psychological studies of children’s adjustment to child care and nursery school classrooms; social, psychological, sociometric and ethological studies of young children’s social networks and dominance relationships.

Recent Findings Addressing the Key Research Questions

  1. When do children develop the ability to relate to their peers? Most infants and toddlers meet peers on a regular basis, and some experience long-lasting relationships with particular peers that start at birth.1 By six months of age, infants can communicate with other infants by smiling, touching and babbling. In the second year of life, they show both prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers, with some toddlers clearly being more aggressive than others.1-4
  2. What skills promote early peer relations? Although many investigators havedescribed early peer relations, relatively little attention has been paid to the emotional, cognitive and behavioural skills that underlie the ability to interact harmoniously with peers. I have proposed that early peer relations depend on the following skills that develop during the first two years of life: (a) managing joint attention;(b) regulating emotions; (c) inhibiting impulses; (d) imitating another’s actions;(e) understanding cause-and-effect relationships; and (f) linguistic competence.5 Deficits in these skills may be compensated for when children interact with competent adults, such as their parents or teachers, or with tolerant older siblings; however, peers who are also only gradually developing these skills may be less forgiving, and so the peer environment may be especially challenging. Children with developmental disorders who are impaired in joint attention skills6 and imitation7 and children with limited vocabularies2 may be at special risk, which may account for some of the problematic peer relations in mainstreamed preschool classrooms.8
  3. Why do young children accept some peers and reject others? A great dealof research on peer relations in early childhood has used sociometric methods, in which children name those peers they like and (sometimes) dislike. These methods show that some children are accepted by their peers, whereas others are either actively rejected or ignored. Peer acceptance is affected by many factors in a child’s life, such as their relationships at home with parents and siblings, the parents’ own relationship and the family’s levels of social support.5 However, peer acceptance is most directly affected by children’s own behaviour. Studies show that highly aggressive children are not accepted by their peers9 but this may depend on gender.10 Furthermore, it may actually be the absence of prosocial behaviour, not the presence of aggression, that promotes peer rejection.11,12 Under some circumstances, aggressive behaviour is positively associated with social competence.13Shy children also experience problems in gaining acceptance in their peer groups. Shyness in the early childhood years has been linked to the child’s temperament and earlier emotional reactions to novel situations and to attachment relationships; shy preschoolers are more likely than other children to have mothers who experience social phobias.14-16
  4. Do early peer relations have a long-term impact on children’s development? There are clear links between very early peer relations and those that occur later in childhood. For example, toddlers who were able to engage in complex play with peers were more competent in dealing with other children in the preschool years and in middle childhood.17 Peer acceptance in early childhood is a predictor of later peer relations. Children who were without friends in kindergarten were still having difficulties dealing with peers at the age of 10.18 It is not clear, however, whether early problems with peers actually cause the later problems, or whether both are caused by other risk factors at home and school and the behavioural tendencies and skill deficits that make it hard to gain acceptance by one’s peers. However, the roots of peer rejection lie in the earliest years of childhood, and peer rejection is associated with educational underachievement, even when many other causal influences are taken into account.19 Put another way, having friends in early childhood appears to protect children against the development of psychological problems later in childhood.19

Conclusions

(Video) Peer Relationships in Childhood Explained

Peers play important roles in children’s lives at much earlier points in development than we might have thought. Experiences in the first two or three years of life have implications for children’s acceptance by their classmates in nursery school and the later school years. Children who are competent with peers at an early age, and those who show prosocial behaviour, are particularly likely to be accepted by their peers. Aggressive children are often rejected by their peers, although aggression does not always preclude peer acceptance. It is clear that peer relations pose special challenges to children with disorders and others who lack the emotional, cognitive and behavioural skills that underlie harmonious interaction. The risk for children with early behavioural and emotional problems is exacerbated by the peer rejection they experience. Conversely, early friendships and positive relations with peer groups appear to protect children against later psychological problems.

Implications for Policy-Makers and Service-Providers

The evidence just reviewed challenges long-held beliefs about the importance of peers in early development. Whereas once we may have thought that peers began to have an influence on children during the primary school years and adolescence, it now seems possible that very early interactions with peers at home and in child-care settings could set the stage for later problems. At the same time, these findings suggest that it is possible to act early to prevent later problems. Because peer acceptance is associated with better psychological adjustment and educational achievement, programs that support early competence with peers will have implications for educational and mental-health policy. The findings also raise challenging questions about “mainstreaming” policies for children with special educational needs. Problems that have been noted in mainstreamed preschool classrooms may derive from underlying deficits that could be addressed directly. It is therefore important for policy-makers and service-providers to consider ways to facilitate young children’s positive relations with their peers.

References

(Video) 4. Early Childhood Development in a Time of Pandemic: Peer Relations

  1. Hay DF, Castle J, Davies L, Demetriou H, Stimson CA. Prosocial action in very early childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1999;40(6):906-916.
  2. Dionne G, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Laplante D, Pérusse D. Physical aggression and expressive vocabulary in 19-month-old twins. Developmental Psychology 2003;39(2):261-273.
  3. Hay DF, Castle J, Davies L. Toddlers’ use of force against familiar peers: A precursor to serious aggression? Child Development 2000;71(2):457-467.
  4. Rubin KH, Burgess KB, Dwyer KM, Hastings PD. Predicting preschoolers’ externalizing behaviors from toddler temperament, conflict, and maternal negativity. Developmental Psychology 2003;39(1):164-176.
  5. Hay DF, Payne A, Chadwick A. Peer relations in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 2004;45(1):84-108.
  6. Charman T, Swettenham J, Baron-Cohen S, Cox A, Baird G, Drew A. Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation. Developmental Psychology 1997;33(5):781-789.
  7. Rogers SJ, Hepburn SL, Stackhouse T, Wehner E. Imitation performance in toddlers with autism and those with other developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 2003;44(5):763-781.
  8. Guralnick MJ, Paul-Brown D, Groom JM, Booth CL, Hammond MA, Tupper DB, Gelenter A. Conflict resolution patterns of preschool children with and without developmental delays in heterogeneous playgroups. Early Education and Development 1998;9(1):49-77.
  9. Crick NR, Casas JF, Mosher M. Relational and overt aggression in preschool. Developmental Psychology 1997;33(4):579-588.
  10. Ostrov JM, Keating CF. Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study. Social Development 2004;13(2):255-277.
  11. Denham SA, McKinley M, Couchoud EA, Holt R. Emotional and behavioral predictors of preschool peer ratings. Child Development 1990;61(4):1145-1152.
  12. Vitaro F, Gagnon C, Tremblay RE. Predicting stable peer rejection from kindergarten to Grade one. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 1990;19(3):257-264.
  13. Vaughn BE, Vollenweider M, Bost KK, Azria-Evans MR, Snider JB. Negative interactions and social competence for preschool children in two samples: Reconsidering the interpretation of aggressive behavior for young children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 2003;49(3):245-278.
  14. Rubin KH, Burgess KB, Coplan RJ. Social withdrawal and shyness. In: Smith PK, Hart CH, eds. Blackwell handbook of childhood social development. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishers; 2002:330-352.
  15. Cooper PJ, Eke M. Childhood shyness and maternal social phobia: A community study. British Journal of Psychiatry 1999;174:439-443.
  16. Howes C, Phillipsen L. Continuity in children’s relations with peers. Social Development 1998;7(3):340-349.
  17. Ladd GW, Troop-Gordon W. The role of chronic peer difficulties in the development of children’s psychological adjustment problems. Child Development 2003;74(5):1344-1367.
  18. Woodward LJ, Fergusson DM. Childhood peer relationship problems and later risks of educational under-achievement and unemployment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 2000;41(2):191-201.
  19. Criss MM, Pettit GS, Bates JE, Dodge KA, Lapp AL. Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children’s externalising behavior: A longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience. Child Development 2002;73(4):1220-1237.

How to cite this article:

Hay DF. Early Peer Relations and their Impact on Children’s Development. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Boivin M, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online].https://www.child-encyclopedia.com/peer-relations/according-experts/early-peer-relations-and-their-impact-childrens-development. Published: March 2005. Accessed September 13, 2022.

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FAQs

How does peers affect the development of a child? ›

Peer relationships provide a unique context in which children learn a range of critical social emotional skills, such as empathy, cooperation, and problem-solving strategies. Peer relationships can also contribute negatively to social emotional development through bullying, exclusion, and deviant peer processes.

Is peer acceptance important in child development? ›

Genuine acceptance of the child in the peer group creates the basis for healthy development while rejection from peers from an early age brings about such risks as externalizing problems (poor school adaptation, physical aggressiveness) and internalizing problems (loneliness, social anxiety, depression, and negative ...

How do peers and groups affect children's behavior and thinking? ›

Research also indicates that play with peers provides children with important opportunities to discuss feelings, expand thought processes and knowledge, and experiment with language and social roles. Some of children's behavior with their peers is influenced by what they learn from their parents and siblings.

What can early childhood teachers do to promote positive peer relations? ›

Model effective social skills in the classroom and at home through praise, positive reinforcement and correction and redirection of inappropriate behaviors.
...
These include:
  • Getting a friend's attention.
  • Sharing objects.
  • Asking peers to share objects.
  • Providing a play idea to a peer.
  • Saying something nice to a friend.

How does peer influence your development as a person? ›

Peers, or a group of people who have similar interests, age, background, or social status, serve as an important source of information, feedback, and support to individuals as they develop a sense of self. Peers help socialize an individual by reinforcing or punishing behaviors or interpersonal interactions.

What are the types of peer relationships? ›

Three Types of Peer Relationships

Kram and Isabella (1985) identified three types of peers found in corporate settings: (a) information peers, (b) collegial peers, and (c) special peers.

Are peers more important than parents during the process of development? ›

Yes, the peers are more important in human growth and development but the parents have more responsibility them. Children should transform into adults through the careful hands of the parents and the reasonable influence from the peers.

What is positive peer relationships? ›

Research on positive peer relationships often distinguishes between friendship and peer acceptance. High-quality friendships involve not only companionship, but also caring, validation, and support.

How do parents influence their children's peer relations? ›

Parents also influence a child's relationships directly by designing, mediating, supervising, and advising children about these relationships. Parents may build bridges between their child and peers by scheduling playdates, help their child engage with others and talk about difficulties.

How does peer influence affect behavior? ›

The results show that the role of peers may be relevant to the risk behaviours, violence, well-being, health and feelings about school, directly and indirectly. Influence, whether positive or negative, is associated with the type of behaviours adopted by friends.

How can teachers enhance the peer relations of students? ›

Lastly, teachers can take a proactive approach in promoting positive peer relationships among students in the classroom by developing strategies in the following areas: teaching social-emotional skills, conflict- resolution skills and problem-solving skills; getting students to learn in groups; and creating a classroom ...

During which stage peer group is most important influence? ›

Influences on Socialization

Peer group influence is at its highest during adolescence. As children progress into adolescents, they tend to spend less time under adult supervision and more time with their peers.

How do you promote interactions between children and others to develop their well being? ›

have individual face-to-face activity with their child, such as talking, singing and playing. follow the child's lead: focus on what they choose, and support and encourage their curiosity. maintain eye contact, as this helps build a strong relationship.

How do you maintain healthy peer relationships? ›

Tips for building relationships with peers
  1. Follow through on your promises. All the niceties in the world won't lead to a solid relationship if you don't start with the basics. ...
  2. Connect beyond your task list. ...
  3. Offer praise and recognition. ...
  4. Remember to listen. ...
  5. Avoid judgment.
20 Jun 2022

How do you encourage children to interact with peers? ›

  1. Strategies to Encourage Peer to Peer. Interactions in Early Childcare Settings. ...
  2. Set up Small groups. • ...
  3. Create a physical environment. that promotes small groups. ...
  4. Set up collaborative tasks with. one other peer. ...
  5. Direct conversations away. from yourself. ...
  6. Encourage interaction during outdoor play. • ...
  7. Set up dramatic play themes. •

Why are children influenced by peer pressure? ›

Some kids give in to peer pressure because they want to be liked or they think it helps them fit in. Some worry that other kids might tease them if they don't go along with the group. Others go along because they are curious. Maybe they want to try something that others are doing.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of peer pressure? ›

Peer pressure can be both pessimistic and positive. Because if a person is a peer pressuring you for a good reason then it is vitality. Motivation is necessary for the development of a person. While peer pressure for an awful cause will always bring you to an unfortunate situation.

What are the effects of peer pressure on students? ›

Negative peer pressure is often related to influencing bullying behaviours, drinking alcohol, drug use and negative body image, all of which are harmful to a child or young person's wellbeing. The effects of such behaviours can decrease self-confidence, self-worth and distancing from family members and friends.

What are 4 types of peer relationship? ›

Finally, communication changes as we progress through the four types of coworker friendships: acquaintance, friend, close friend, and almost best friend.

What is the meaning of peer relationship? ›

Peer relationships are interpersonal relationships established and developed during social interactions among peers or individuals with similar levels of psychological development (La Greca and Harrison, 2005), and are a form of social support.

What are the three types of peer relationships? ›

The three major types of peer relationships are:
  • Information peer relationships. Information peer relationships are a type of peer relationship that involves sharing information and data concerning the organization amongst colleagues. ...
  • Collegial peer relationships. ...
  • Special peer relationships.

Are children more influenced by parents or peers? ›

Among other conclusions, peers are more likely to influence adolescents through modeling, while parental influence is more strongly exerted through norms. *This paper is one of a series reporting research on the expectations and behaviors of adoles- cents.

What is the meaning of peer influence? ›

Peer influence is when you choose to do something you wouldn't otherwise do, because you want to feel accepted and valued by your friends. It isn't just or always about doing something against your will. You might hear the term 'peer pressure' used a lot.

What is good peer pressure? ›

Positive peer pressure is when someone's peers influence them to do something positive or growth building. For example, peers who are committed to doing well in school or at sport can influence others to be more goal orientated. Similarly, peers who are kind, loyal or supportive influence others to be the same.

What can families do to help children develop positive peer relationships? ›

Provide activities for children to enjoy together, such as building a fort, starting a game of hide-and-go-seek, playing a board game or making crafts or models—these are all activities that require children to demonstrate helpful and cooperative social behaviors.

Why is peer play important? ›

Peer play provides a context in which children can learn academic skills from more advanced playmates, and is associated with cognitive growth (Wentzel, 2009). Social learning theorists suggest that children can learn from others by observation (Bandura, 1977).

How do parents and peers shape children's development? ›

In what ways do parents and peers shape children's development? Parents influence their children in areas such as manners and political and religious beliefs, but not in other areas, such as personality. As children attempt to fit in with their peers, they tend to adopt their culture—styles, accents, slang, attitudes.

What are children more likely to have if they feel accepted by their peers? ›

Young children are more likely to be accepted by their peers — and more likely to develop friendships — if they understand the thoughts and feelings of other people (Slaughter et al 2002; Caputi et al 2012; Fink et al 2014).

What is the study of peer relationships? ›

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Peer relations research examines the types and quality of social interactions among same-aged peers. Researchers typically focus their investigation on the quality of each individual's peer interactions within a given social unit.

Is peer influence good or bad? ›

Peer pressure is commonly thought of in a negative light, but in reality, it's not always a bad thing. Sometimes peer pressure is used to positively influence people, such as when teens work toward common goals such as doing well in school or helping out in their community.

Which is the best example of positive peer pressure? ›

Examples of positive peer pressure
  • Forming a study group. Your child and their friends talk about their biology class pretty regularly. ...
  • Putting a stop to gossiping. You're driving your child and their friend to another friend's house when you hear something concerning. ...
  • Trying new things. ...
  • In adults.
20 Jan 2021

What are examples of peer pressure? ›

Sometimes, though, the stresses in your life can actually come from your peers. They may pressure you into doing something you're uncomfortable with, such as shoplifting, doing drugs or drinking, taking dangerous risks when driving a car, or having sex before you feel ready.

Why is it important to build and promote positive peer interaction? ›

Positive social interactions are interactions that take place between peers that are positive in nature and successful for both children involved. These peer interactions are important because they lead to positive social and emotional development in children.

Why it is important for students in school to have positive relationships with each others? ›

Strong relationships with teachers and school staff can dramatically enhance students' level of motivation and therefore promote learning. Students who have access to more strong relationships are more academically engaged, have stronger social skills, and experience more positive behavior.

How will you assess whether your students are developing healthy peer relationships? ›

Various aspects of peer relations can be assessed by asking peers, teachers, or fellow out-of- school time program practitioners how much a child or adolescent is liked or disliked by peers (peer acceptance/rejection); overtly excluded by peers (social exclusion); or bullied by peers (peer victimization).

How does peer group affect child development? ›

Peer relationships provide a unique context in which children learn a range of critical social emotional skills, such as empathy, cooperation, and problem-solving strategies. Peer relationships can also contribute negatively to social emotional development through bullying, exclusion, and deviant peer processes.

What are the advantages of peer groups? ›

Here are six benefits of belonging to a peer group:
  • Resources. ...
  • Freedom to share ideas. ...
  • Professional and emotional support. ...
  • Accountability. ...
  • Knowledge. ...
  • Better mental and physical health.
3 Jun 2020

How do peers and groups affect children's behavior and thinking? ›

Research also indicates that play with peers provides children with important opportunities to discuss feelings, expand thought processes and knowledge, and experiment with language and social roles. Some of children's behavior with their peers is influenced by what they learn from their parents and siblings.

How do parents and peers shape children's development? ›

In what ways do parents and peers shape children's development? Parents influence their children in areas such as manners and political and religious beliefs, but not in other areas, such as personality. As children attempt to fit in with their peers, they tend to adopt their culture—styles, accents, slang, attitudes.

How does peer group affect moral development? ›

Peer interactions contribute to the maturity of a child moral development. The process of interaction with peers can change many things that happen in one's life including behavior (Walker, Hennig, & Kretteneur 2000). In addition, peer interactions and moral development affect the behavior of aggression.

Are parents or peers more important for development? ›

Yes, the peers are more important in human growth and development but the parents have more responsibility them. Children should transform into adults through the careful hands of the parents and the reasonable influence from the peers.

How does peer pressure affect behaviour? ›

Negative peer pressure is often related to influencing bullying behaviours, drinking alcohol, drug use and negative body image, all of which are harmful to a child or young person's wellbeing. The effects of such behaviours can decrease self-confidence, self-worth and distancing from family members and friends.

What is the most important influence on child development? ›

Children's early experiences and relationships in the first five years of life are critical for development. In the early years, your child's main way of learning and developing is through play. Other influences on development include genes, nutrition, physical activity, health and community.

How do parents influence their children's peer relations? ›

Parents also influence a child's relationships directly by designing, mediating, supervising, and advising children about these relationships. Parents may build bridges between their child and peers by scheduling playdates, help their child engage with others and talk about difficulties.

What means peer relationship? ›

Peer relationships are interpersonal relationships established and developed during social interactions among peers or individuals with similar levels of psychological development (La Greca and Harrison, 2005), and are a form of social support.

Why is moral development important in early childhood? ›

Knowing good moral values such as kindness, humility, courage, and compassion at an early age builds a child's character. It forms the very core of their being and becomes a foundation of their moral beliefs. This is why it's essential to start teaching them moral values while they're still children.

What is morality and what are the factors that have an impact on its development? ›

Moral development is strongly influenced by interpersonal factors, such as family, peers, and culture. Intrapersonal factors also impact moral development, such as cognitive changes, emotions, and even neurodevelopment.

What is the role of community in moral development of a child? ›

The creation of a local community in early childhood becomes the supportive, positive, uplifting foundation of a child's life. It helps them to learn about themselves. It helps them learn how to tackle challenges, build knowledge, and thrive.

Who influence children the most? ›

Common knowledge, parents influence their children's development and personality. Whether we want to admit it or not, parents are a child's most influential role model. As parents, we spend more time with our children than any other adult.

What is the meaning of peer influence? ›

Peer influence is when you choose to do something you wouldn't otherwise do, because you want to feel accepted and valued by your friends. It isn't just or always about doing something against your will. You might hear the term 'peer pressure' used a lot.

How important is the influence of the parents relatives and close friends to the adolescents development? ›

Relationships with parents and families give pre-teens and teenagers emotional support, security and safety. Your support helps pre-teens and teenagers navigate the ups and downs of adolescence. You can strengthen family relationships with meals, activities, rules, meetings, rituals and responsibilities.

What are the solutions to peer pressure? ›

What strategies can help handle negative peer pressure?
  • Pay attention to how you feel. ...
  • Plan ahead. ...
  • Talk to the person who is pressuring, let him or her know how it makes you feel and tell the person stop.
  • Have a secret code to communicate with parents. ...
  • Give an excuse. ...
  • Have friends with similar values and beliefs.

What are negative effects of peer groups? ›

Negative peer pressure can also affect mental health. It can decrease self-confidence and lead to poor academic performance, distancing from family members and friends, or an increase in depression and anxiety. Left untreated, this could eventually lead teens to engage in self-harm or have suicidal thoughts.

What are the main causes of peer pressure? ›

Some kids give in to peer pressure because they want to be liked or they think it helps them fit in. Some worry that other kids might tease them if they don't go along with the group. Others go along because they are curious. Maybe they want to try something that others are doing.

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